Cyrus the Great
Persian leader who treated his subjects with kindness. Freed the Israelites and united Persia. His armies conquered Mesopotamia, Babylon, Canaan, and Syria.
Reorganized the government to make the empire easier to manage. Divided Persia into 20 satrapies
20 provinces, each ruled by a Satrap
Official who governs a region. Acted as a tax collector, judge, chief of police, and recruiter for the Army.
Soldiers who were paid by the government to act as full time soldiers
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster. Believed in 1 god, but said that people could choose between good and evil. Good would prevail.
Battle of Marathon
Persians land on the plain of Marathon and then wait to attack. However, they get tired of waiting and board the ships to leave, with the horsemen and cavalry board first. The Athenians then attacked and won.
Messenger who ran 25 miles from Marathon to Athens to deliver the news that Athens had won.
Persian king after Darius.
Leader of the attacks at Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea
King of the Spartans who was the commander of the Army.
Battle of Thermopylae
Sparta+Athens vs. Persians. Themistocles decides that the soldiers should block off the Persians from the north. A traitor leads the Persians out, and some Greek soldiers fight to the death. Greeks lost
Strait of Salamis
Athenian navy attacks the Persian ships. Greek ships were smaller and easier to maneuver, so the Greeks win.
After the defeat at Salamis, the Persian soldiers march forward and burn Athens to the ground. The Greek army, more experienced and prepared this time, crush the Persians.
Formed by Athens and other city-states to fight against the Persians. Eventually became an Athenian Empire.
Headquarter of the Delian League, but would later move to Athens.
People vote on laws. Good for Athens because of its small population.
People vote on representatives who vote on laws.
Ten officials who carried out the assembly's laws + policies
General who leaded Athens for over 30 years. Everybody likes him. Helped Athens dominate the Delian League. Demanded strict loyalty and payments. Made Athens more democratic.
Age of Pericles
Period of Creativity. Pericles starts a rebuilding program to fix what the Persians burned to the ground. He also supported philosophers
Ponder questions about live, such as "Why am I here", "What is the meaning of life", etc.
Foreign woman who was very educated and taught public speaking.
Depended on slave labor, who were maids, tutors, etc.
Speech given by Pericles during a funeral to honor those who had died in battle.
Battle of Peloponnesia
When Pericles orders the farmers to go more toward the center of Athens, a disease spreads that kills Pericles and about 1/3 of the population. Sparta relies on Persia to build a navy. Athens surrenders and Sparta tears down the city walls.