what do age related changes in the digestive system reflect?
changes in other body systems; digestion and absorption continues to occur normally
age-related changes in other systems due to digestive system changes include what?
1. a slowed rate of epithelial stem cell division; 2. a decrease in smooth muscle tone; 3. the appearance of cumulative damage; 4. an increase in cancer rates; 5. numerous changes in other systems
what happens when the diaphragm and phrenic nerve are irritated?
a person cannot stop hiccoughing
what is gastrectomy?
a surgical removal of the stomach
why is a gastrectomy performed?
a potential treatment for stomach cancer
what is entritis?
irritation of the small intestine by toxins or other irritants
what does entritis cause?
diarrhea, due to frequent peristalsis along the small intestine
what is gastritis?
an inflammation of the gastric mucosa
what is achalasia?
the blockage of the lower part of the esophagus due to weak peristalsis and malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter
what is colitis?
irritation of the colon, leading to abnormal bowel function
what is cirrhosis?
a condition caused by the destruction of hepatocytes by drug exposure, viral infection, ischemia, etc.
what is diverticulosis?
a condition in which pockets form in the colon, usually the sigmoid colon
what is cholelithiasis?
a condition in which gallstones are present in the gallbladder
what is a colostomy?
attachment by surgical procedure to the abdominal wall, bypassing the distal portion of the large intestine
what is gastric stapling?
a surgical procedure to promote weight loss by blocking off a large portion of the gastric mucosa