Chapter 7: Acids, Bases, & Solutions

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Solution

a well-mixed mixture that contains a solvent and at least one solute.

Solvent

the part of a solution present in the largest amount.

Water

"universal solvent".

Colloid

is a mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out.

Solute

what gets dissolved by the solvent

Suspension

is a mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration.

dilute solution

a mixture that has only a little solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent.

concentrated solution

a solution that has a lot of solute dissolved in the same amount of solvent.

solubility

is a measure of how much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature.

unsaturated solution

if you can continue to add more solute to the solution

supersaturated solution

has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at the given temperature.

Acid

a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns blue litmus paper red

corrosive

they eat away at other materials

indicator

compound that changes color when in contact with an acid or a base

base

substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue

hydrogen ion (H+)

an atom of hydrogen that has lost its electron

hydroxide ion (OH-)

the negative ion made of oxygen and hydrogen

pH scale

range of values from 0-14.

neutralization

reaction between an acid and a base

salt

any ionic compound that can be made from the neutralization of an acid with a base

acid

any substance that produces hydrogen ions in water

digestion

breaks down the complex molecules of foods into smaller molecules

mechanical digestion

physical process where large pieces of food are torn and ground into smaller pieces

chemical digestion

breaks large molecules into smaller ones

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