the evolutionary adaption of a cell for a particular function
a group of similar cells that perform a common function
a body structure composed of one type of tissue and specialized for a certain function
what does it mean when you say that an animal is heterotrophic?
the animal gets its organic compounds and nutrients from other sources (doesn't create it)
an animal taking in organic material in the form of other living things
the breaking down of food into chemical substances that can be used to obtain energy
two haploid gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote, zygote undergoes mitotic divisions
process during development in which cells become specialized and different from each other
what important process happens during animal development that allows them to develop in complex multicellular organisms?
allows animals to detect stimuli in its environment; one of two types of tissues responsible for movement
allows an animal to move specific parts of the body by contracting muscles; one of two types of tissues responsible for movement
body arrangement in which parts that lie on opposite sides of an axis are identical
does not display symmetry
type of symmetry in which parts are organized in a circle around the axis; have a top and bottom side, but no front, back, left or right end
type of symmetry in which animals have two similar halves on either side of a central plane
tissue layer in the embryos of all animals except sponges
fluid filled space that forms between the digestive tract and the outer wall of the body during development
what are the three functions a body cavity serves to an animal?
aids in movement, lets the animal move more freely (by allowing some movement by the exterior without affecting the internal organs), and acts as transport for nutrients and wastes
similar repeating units
the concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of the animal
an organism that produces both male and female gametes
has an intermediate larval stage (free living, immature form of an organism that is morphologically different from the adult- different habitats and food sources)
young animal is born or hatched with the same appearance and way of life as an adult (no larval stage)
vertebrates have backbones, invertebrates don't
what major characteristic separates vertebrates from invertebrates?
body covering of vertebrates, adapt to environment (land-water tight), can serve as gas exchange, protection, and insulation
What are some examples of reproduction and development in different vertebrates?
Fish and amphibians- egg and sperm are released directly into water where fertilization takes place.
Reptiles, birds, mammals- the egg and sperm unite within the body of the female.
Mammals give birth to live offspring.
Placental mammals have embryos that develop inside the female and are nourished by the mother's blood supply until born. (humans)
With the exception of amphibians and some fish, vertebrates undergo direct development.