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Defend Earth from alien invaders
Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane
semipermeable...selective about what can enter or leave the cell...allow lipid soluble to go through...made up of protein,phospholipids
gel-like substance found inside the cell but out side the nucleus. surrounds and supports organelles;medium through which nutrients and waste move
Control center of the cell...contains genetic information.DNA ..large pores, allow free movement of protien to ATP
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
transports material through the cytoplasm
tiny, slipper-shaped organells. convert energy in nutrients to ATP (power plant of cell)
packages protein in membrane;puts the finishing touches on protein
sites of protein synthesis
"housekeeing" within the cell contains ensymes
provides for intracellular shape and support
help seperate the chromosomes during mitosis...rod shaped. cellular reproduction
create movement over the cell
create movement of cell..ex. allow the sperm to swim)
basic unit of all living things. structure and function closely related.
double layered, surrounds the nucleus..contains large pores that allow free movement of certain substances(genetic material), to come out when it's time for replication. between the nucleus and the cytoplasm,,
substance that fills the nucleus. contas two other structures 1 nucleolus (little nucleus), and chromatin, which are threadlike structures that contain genes
digestive organelles that "clean house" within the cell
smooth endoplamic reticulum
rough endoplasmic reticulum
has protein, green specks on picture
moving from high to low concentration...reaching equilibrium ex..food coloring in glass...area around the die, diffusing, making all the water, equal pink
a helper molecule within the membrane helps with movement of
adenosine triphosphate (energy storing, moving molecule)
small organs within a cell
only applys to water, water enters the semipermeable membrane, Water passes from less concentrated to more concentrated..reaching a state of equilibrium.
4 Passive transport mechanisms
Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis, Filtration
3 Active transport mechanisms
Active transport pumps ,Endocytosis ,Exocytosis
Active transport pumps
ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM movement of a substance uphill, from low to high concentration Requires input of energy (ATP)
ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM taking in or ingestion of substances by the cell membrane
ACTIVE T RANSPORT MECHANISM cellular waste, out of the cell protein, debris
Iso meaning same...Same as intracellular fluid RBC no movement of water (Normal Saline)
(plain water) water moves into RBC, causing the RBC to burst Water is more dilute than RBC so...water moves into RBC, BURST OSMOSIS ONLY WATER MOVES
(concentrated solution) RBC shrinks because the SOLUTION is more concentrated than the RBC so the water from the RBC goes to the solution (equilibrium) and the RBC Shrinks
the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell
unlike diffusin and osmosis, water and dissolved substances cross the membrane is response to defferences in PRESSURE, pressure PUSHES substance accross the membrane
Cell Division same as
occurs only with sex cells
4 phases...prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. exact replica being produced, same DNA ..Same chromosomes invoved in bodily repair and growth..ex..cut healing. .splitting of one mother cell into two IDENTICAL ("daughter cells)
cell carries on duties,begins to make DNA and other substance necessary for cell division
cell duplicates its chromosomes, making enough DNA for 2 cells
final preparatory phase for cell division (mitosis)...synthesis of enzymes and protein needed for misosis....then enters Mitotic (M) phase.
have the ability to differentiate..Embryonic, Adult and Placenta/umbilical...some go to the nerves to become nerve cells, some go to bones to become bone cells etc.
increase production of alypical cells
benign prostatic hyperplasia
ability to re-occur and metastisize, causing death
beyond change, growth
cells shrink due to hypertonic. water from cell goes into concentrated solution to become equal
cells burst due to hypotonic, ex.hot dog is water....
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