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Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane

semipermeable...selective about what can enter or leave the cell...allow lipid soluble to go through...made up of protein,phospholipids

cytoplasm

gel-like substance found inside the cell but out side the nucleus. surrounds and supports organelles;medium through which nutrients and waste move

nucleus

Control center of the cell...contains genetic information.DNA ..large pores, allow free movement of protien to ATP

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

transports material through the cytoplasm

mitochondria

tiny, slipper-shaped organells. convert energy in nutrients to ATP (power plant of cell)

golgi apparatus

packages protein in membrane;puts the finishing touches on protein

ribosomes

sites of protein synthesis

lysosomes

"housekeeing" within the cell contains ensymes

cytoskeleton

provides for intracellular shape and support

centrioles

help seperate the chromosomes during mitosis...rod shaped. cellular reproduction

cilia

create movement over the cell

flagella

create movement of cell..ex. allow the sperm to swim)

Cell

basic unit of all living things. structure and function closely related.

Nucleus membrane

double layered, surrounds the nucleus..contains large pores that allow free movement of certain substances(genetic material), to come out when it's time for replication. between the nucleus and the cytoplasm,,

nucleoplasm

substance that fills the nucleus. contas two other structures 1 nucleolus (little nucleus), and chromatin, which are threadlike structures that contain genes

lysosomes

digestive organelles that "clean house" within the cell

smooth endoplamic reticulum

steroids

rough endoplasmic reticulum

has protein, green specks on picture

Diffusion

moving from high to low concentration...reaching equilibrium ex..food coloring in glass...area around the die, diffusing, making all the water, equal pink

facilitated diffusion

a helper molecule within the membrane helps with movement of

ATP

adenosine triphosphate (energy storing, moving molecule)

organelles

small organs within a cell

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

Osmosis

only applys to water, water enters the semipermeable membrane, Water passes from less concentrated to more concentrated..reaching a state of equilibrium.

4 Passive transport mechanisms

Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis, Filtration

3 Active transport mechanisms

Active transport pumps ,Endocytosis ,Exocytosis

Active transport pumps

ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM movement of a substance uphill, from low to high concentration Requires input of energy (ATP)

Endocytosis

ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM taking in or ingestion of substances by the cell membrane

Phagocytosis

cellular eating

Pinocytosis

cellular drinking

exocytosis

ACTIVE T RANSPORT MECHANISM cellular waste, out of the cell protein, debris

Isotonic

Iso meaning same...Same as intracellular fluid RBC no movement of water (Normal Saline)

hypotonic

(plain water) water moves into RBC, causing the RBC to burst Water is more dilute than RBC so...water moves into RBC, BURST OSMOSIS ONLY WATER MOVES

hypertonic

(concentrated solution) RBC shrinks because the SOLUTION is more concentrated than the RBC so the water from the RBC goes to the solution (equilibrium) and the RBC Shrinks

tonicity

the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell

filtration

unlike diffusin and osmosis, water and dissolved substances cross the membrane is response to defferences in PRESSURE, pressure PUSHES substance accross the membrane

Cell Division same as

Cell Reproduction

meiosis

occurs only with sex cells

mitosis

4 phases...prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. exact replica being produced, same DNA ..Same chromosomes invoved in bodily repair and growth..ex..cut healing. .splitting of one mother cell into two IDENTICAL ("daughter cells)

Interphase

G1, S,G2,M

Phase G1

cell carries on duties,begins to make DNA and other substance necessary for cell division

Phase S

cell duplicates its chromosomes, making enough DNA for 2 cells

Phase G2

final preparatory phase for cell division (mitosis)...synthesis of enzymes and protein needed for misosis....then enters Mitotic (M) phase.

stem cells

have the ability to differentiate..Embryonic, Adult and Placenta/umbilical...some go to the nerves to become nerve cells, some go to bones to become bone cells etc.

cancer

increase production of alypical cells

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

benign

not recurrant

malignant

ability to re-occur and metastisize, causing death

meteplasia

beyond change, growth

crenation

cells shrink due to hypertonic. water from cell goes into concentrated solution to become equal

hemolysis

cells burst due to hypotonic, ex.hot dog is water....

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