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What type of feedback maintains stability in a system; i.e., what type of feedback keeps a system functioning properly?

Negative

The increase in meltponds in Arctic regions is an example of

positive feedback, because the melt ponds absorb more solar energy than the ice did.

The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon are located at

23.5° north and south

The meridian opposite of Earth's prime meridian (0° longitude) is called

the International Date Line.

Lines of latitude run __________ to one another.

parallel

Which of the following methods most governs geography?

spatial analysis

Which of the following most accurately characterizes the goal of geography?

Understanding why a particular place has unique characteristics.

Which of the following is the most strongly supported by experimental and observational evidence?

theory.

According to the text, the three inorganic Earth realms are the

hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere.

Outputs generated by a system that encourage or discourage system operation are called __________.

positive and negative feedback

The __________ passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England.

prime meridian

The equator and the Tropic of Capricorn are __________.

parallels of latitude

A __________ system such as Earth allows for inputs and outputs of energy, with virtually no inputs and outputs of physical matter.

closed

A __________ is a simplified, idealized representation of the real world used to help us understand complex systems.

model

A computer-based processing tool for gathering, manipulating, and analyzing geographic information is called a __________.

geographic information system

The atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere are examples of __________ systems.

abiotic

__________ is the world standard for a consistent Universal Time.

Coordinated Universal Time

__________ is the ratio of the image on a map to that of the real world.

Scale

Numerous devastating wildfires have occurred over the last decade. As the fires burned, they dried the wet shrubs and green wood around the fire, thus providing more fuel for combustion. The greater the fire, the greater the availability of fuel becomes, and thus more fire is possible. This pathway is an example of __________.

negative feedback

Imagine leaving San Francisco, California, at 9 a.m. on a Monday and flying to New York, New York. Assuming your flight takes five hours, the local time when you arrive will be ________.

5 p.m., Monday

A small circle has a center that coincides with the center of the Earth.

False

A person travelling westbound across the International Date Line must subtract one day from the calendar in order to keep an accurate record of the date.

False

A small scale map has less detail than a large scale map.

True

A system is any unordered, unrelated set of attributes that are not linked.

False

Understanding the size and shape of Earth is a primary goal of geodesy.

True

A meridian is a line that connects all points along the same latitude.

False

If a world map shows Greenland and South America to be about the same size (area), it is quite possibly a Mercator projection.

True

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