ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office
an act or decision that sets an example for others to follow
a 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation
a certificate that promises to repay the money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date
someone who invests in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Bank of US
The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability.
a place between maryland and Virginia where the President lives and all of the Congress men and women meet: D.C. stands for District of Colombia
a protest caused by tax on all liquor; it tested the will of the government's power, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
a government tax on imports or exports
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side because they were starting a new country. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799; this introduced the guillotine- a device to chop off the heads of their victim's
celebration in France to celebrate when people stormed the bastile and is recognized as the start of the french revolution; celebrated July 14th
leader of the Federalists, he disagreed about helping in the French Revolution along with Hamilton. Adams later became the 1st V.P. and later 2nd Pres.
actions that a nation takes in relation to other nations
a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley; it did not say that they should not stop destroying ships
Election of 1796
The person with the most electoral votes, John Adams, became President and the person with the second most electoral votes, Thomas Jefferson, became Vice President. A problem from this situation was that Adams and Jefferson belonged to different political parties, so political tensions were strong in the Executive Branch. In modern elections, presidential candidates choose their vice presidential candidates to run with them, so the situation in 1796 could not occur.
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Ruler of France, sold Louisisana to the Americans after reciving it from the Spanish
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Alien and Sedition Act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government
A term used to describe Alexander Hamilton and some of his less-moderate supporters. They wanted the naval war with France to continue and also wanted to severly limit the rights of an opposition party. favored loose interpretation of Constitution were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams, They firmly believed the national government should be strong, were pro-British, Favored National Bank, and Favored Protective tariff
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
Democratic Republican Beliefs
ensuring that all people have the same rights people should have political power, Favored strong State governments, Emphasized agriculture, Favored strict interpretation of Constitution, were pro-French, opposed National Bank, and opposed protective tariff
devotion to one's country
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Economic system in which individuals decide for themselves what to produce and how much to sell of it
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
gave the Supreme Court the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional and to reject laws that it considered to be constitutional
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality; he was the leader of the Democratic/Republican; he gave money to Lewis and Clark so they can explore the land
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
Robert Livingston and James Monroe
both were sent from Jefferson to by New Orleans and West Florida from Napolean and France; they could offer up to 10 million
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Led the Haitian revolt against France, therefore causing Napoleon to give up his dream of an empire in the Americas. Napoleon then decided to sell the Louisiana Territory.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
The Shoshone Indian guide of Lewis and Clark. Her help was infinitely important. Sacagewea provided the explorers with invaluable survival techniques and advice; she was also a translator for the team
Explored the upper Mississippi River, the Arkansas River and parts of present day Colorado and New Mexico from 1805-1807. In Nov. 1806, Pike viewed a mountain peak rising above the Colorado plains. Continuing southward, Pile entered into Spanish territory and Spanish troops soon arrested pike and his men. When he was let go, his maps were burned, but luckily, he remembered all of it in his mind
a mountain ridge that separates river systems flowing toward opposite sides of a continent
War with Tripoli
The war started when U.S. refused to pay tribute to Tripoli.
Jefferson sent ships to block Tripoli. They failed, and conflict continued. Pirates seized Philadelphia (U.S. Warship) in 1804. They threw the crew in prison. However, Stephen Decatur, an U.S. Navy captain, burned the ship to prevent pirates to use in the future. The war ended in 1805. The pirates agreed to end the tribute, but it really ended in 1815.
this US ship was captured by the Barbary State,Tripoli, after running aground; to keep Tripoli from using the boat, Stephen Decatur and other men (first Marines) went in and burned the ship in Tripoli harbor
United States naval officer remembered for his heroid deeds (1779-1820); he burned the "Philadelphia" so that the pirates will not capture it and learn our advances
The practice of forcing people into service
1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. Really, however, just hurt Americans and our economy and got repealed in 1809.
an 1809 law that allowed americans to carry on trade with all nations except Britain and France
Tecumseh and Prophet
People feared that the British in Canada would recruit Indians to halt the march of American settlement. A Shawnee chief, Tecumseh and his half-brother the Prophet, the spiritual leader, sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. They tried to unify their people and revive traditional virtues.
William Henry Harrison
Govenor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippercanoe
a battle started by William Henry Harrison when he went and attacked Tecumseh's (the prophet) headquarters and since he was not there the people attacked and lost to him and he in turn burned their settlements and caused them to form an alliance with Britain
members of Congressmen from the South and West who wanted to fight a war Great Britain
John C. Calhoun/Henry Clay
the most outspoken War Hawks; was from Kentucky who wanted to punish Britain for seizing American ships and soldiers; he also wanted to conquer Canada
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
a famous us naval captain who fought in the battle of lake Erie on the USS Lawrence and his ship was hit so heavily that he gt off his ship rowed a mile under heavy fire got onto another ship put his flag up on that ship and defeated the british and was hailed a hero
a big ship made out of oak, ironically nicknamed "Old Ironsides"; in one battle, it won the battle because the cannonballs bounced off the hull and for the British ship, it didn't
Battle of Lake Erie
in the War of 1812, an American victory led by Oliver Perry against the British
Battle of Thames
William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.
an african american preacher who helped start the free african society and the african methodist episcopal church
Battle of New Orleans
at the end the of the War of 1812 between British and American forces that ended in an American victory
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815).
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.