Arteries are sometimes called ____ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have stron-resillient tissue structures
______ have the thickest tunica media
The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the _______ and in large arteries and veins contains the _______.
Tunica externa; vasa vasorum
Most blood is in the
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except
heart-arteries-capillary bed - vein- capillary bed- arteries - heart
Vasomotion is associated with the presence of
smooth muscle in the tunica media
In people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
failure of the venous valves
What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and dialstolic pressure respectively?
80 mm Hg
The velocity of blood flow decreases whenq
The medullary ischemic reflex results in
increased circulation to the brain
_____ has the most important effect on blood velocity
Reactive hypermia is a result of _______ to increase perfusion into a tissue
All of these increase blood pressure except
atrial natriuretic peptide
The vasomotor center of the ______ controls blood vessels throughout the body
Hypertension is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than
____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _______ also increase heart rate.
Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall except
The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is
blood hydrostatic pressure
_______ by the capillaries at their venous end
waste products are taken up
The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is
blood colloid osmotic pressure
All of these can lead to edema except
_______ would not increase capillary filtration
A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause ____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHG can cause
______ does not contribute to venous return
_____ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration
______ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permabilty.
A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which can cause ____ and a _______ in arterial blood pressure.
Myocardial infarction can lead to ______ shock
The most important force in venous flow is
the pressure generated by the heart
Blood flow to the _______ remains quite stable even when the MAP fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm HG
Pulmonary arteries have ________ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries
How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart
The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the
There are no _____ in humans
right and left brachiocephalic arteries
The ___ supplies 80% of the cerebrum
internal cartoid artery
The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is
an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland
From superior to inferior , the major branches of the abdominal aorta are
celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries
The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by ways of
the azygos system
These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except
the vertebral veins
These are all veins of the upper limb except
the great saphenous vein
These are all vessels of the lower limb except
the anterior interosseous artery
This is the longest vein and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery
the great saphenous vein
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