Space where community interacts with the physical environment
All steps of Carbon Cycle among the major global ecosystems, Steps of Nitrogen Cycle (Major bacterial reactions, flow and storage)
Input= Output + Internal Flow + Storage
Initial change causes a series of similar changes in the same direction leading to disruption and decline.
Initial changes sets off counter change that reestablish equilibrium.
Energy flow through trophic levels
Open systems have input and output of both energy and matter flowigh through and proceeds through various paths
Controls of biome differentiation
Climate (Moisture and Temperature)