Progressive Reformers

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Who's Who for APUSH test.

Theodore Roosevelt

(1858-1919) President of the US 1901-1909. First "modern president". Set the stage for progressive reforms, busted trusts. Differed between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts. Ran again in 1912 but lost.

Jane Addams

(1860-1935) Of the first generation of college educated women. Set up Hull House, the most prominent American settlement house. Hull House provided child care and taught women to take care of their children.

Hiram W. Johnson

(1866-1945) Republican governor of California, helped to break the dominant grip of Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics. Set up his own political machine.

Robert Lansing

A Legal Advisor to the State Department at the outbreak of World War I, later becoming Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson. He was a strong advocate against Britain's policy of blockading and in favor of freedom of seas. Lansing was a big political figure, negotiating the Lansing-Ishii Agreement with Japan (1917), and being a member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace at Paris (1919). Woodrow Wilson was a major part of the Progressive Movement, and Lansing was his advisor. Lansing played a big part in the worldwide affairs involving trading regulations.

Frederick Jackson Turner

(1861-1932) Wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History". About how the frontier shaped American culture.

Ray Stannard Baker

Wrote "Following the Color Line" which spotlighted the sorry subjugation of America's 9 million blacks, 90% of which still lived in the south and 1/3 were illiterate.

Albert J. Beveridge

(1826-1904) Republican senator from Indiana who went on an investigative trip to the Philippines to defend its annexation. "The Philippines are ours forever... And just beyond the Philippines are China's illimitable markets."

W.E.B. DuBois

(1868-1963) Black civil rights leader, mixture of African, French, Dutch, and Indian. Earned a Ph.D. at Harvard. Demanded complete equality for blacks and helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1910. Demanded the talented tenth of blacks be given full and immediate exposure to mainstream American life.

Charles Evans Hughes

An audacious, reformist Republican governor of New York and gained national fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies as well as the coal trusts.

Lincoln Steffens

Launched a series of articles in "McClures" magazine titled "The Shame of the Cities". Unmasked the corrupt alliance and municipal government.

Robert LaFollette

Governor of Wisconsin who became the most militant of the progressive Republican leaders. Took power from the lumber and railroad "interests" and returned it to the people. First nominee for the National Progressive Republican League. Sponsored the Seamen's Act for equal treatment for sailors.

Walter Hines Page

pro-British ambassador to London that was convinced that the allies must win to save Europe and the world from German domination

Theodore Dreiser

Wrote "Sister Carrie" about a poor working girl in Chicago and NY who has a disregard for morals. Also bashed profiteers and promoters in "The Financier" and "The Titan"

Florence Kelly

A former resident of Hull House. Became the state of Illinois's first chief factory inspector and one of the nations leading advocates for improved factory conditions.

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."

Henry George

Californian journalist who published Progress and Poverty a forthright attack on the uneven distribution of wealth in the U.S. He said labor was the only true source of capitol. He proposed the "single tax" which was a tax that would bring in so much money that no other taxes would be necessary and the government would have plenty of funds to establish new schools... it was never adopted. He ran for mayor against Abram S. Hewitt and lost.

Upton Sinclair

An American author who went into disguise in Chicago's meatpacking industry to uncover the ghastly procedures they were committing and wrote the book The Jungle. Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1888 he moved to the Bronx, New York, where Sinclair entered the City College of New York. He wrote dime novels and magazine articles to pay for his tuition. Sinclair's greatest contribution to the Progressive Movement was his book The Jungle , which was about the meat packing industry. It became a best seller and helped influence the American public.

Walter Rauschenbusch

A Christian theologian and a Baptist minister. Rauschenbusch was born in Rochester, New York. He was raised by orthodox Protestant doctrines of his time. Rauschenbusch's view on Christianity was that its purpose was to spread the kingdom of god by not using fire and brimstone but by living a Christ like life. Rauschenbusch's greatest contribution to the progressive Movement was his idea of the social gospel. The social gospel focused o applying moral principles to improve society such as reforms of factory regulation.

William Allen White

An American newspaper editor, politician, author, and leader of the Progressive movement. White was born in Kansas and then moved to El Dorado. While there he read various books and attended the College of Emporia and University of Kansas and in 1892 he started The Kansas City Star as an editorial writer. Whites greatest contribution to the progressive movement was when we became the leader of the Progressive movement in Kansas, forming the Kansas Republican League in 1912 to oppose railroads and the corruption in America.

Charlotte P. Gilman

An American Sociologist, novelist, writer of short stories, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform. She was born on July 3, 1860 in Hartford, Connecticut. At age of five Gilman taught herself to read. Charlotte became active in organizing social reform movements and became a delegate as she represented California in 1896 at the suffrage Convention in Washington, D.C. and the international Socialist and Labor Congress, which was held in England. Gilman's greatest accomplishment in improving the progressive movement was her semi-autobiographical short story The Yellow Wallpape.

David Graham Phillips

published a series, "The Treason of the Senate" in Cosmopolitan that charged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the people but they rather represented railroads and trusts.

Frederick Howe

Cleveland progressive, that warned "commercialized leisure" must be controlled by the community, if it is to become an agency of civilization rather than the reverse.

William E. Borah

1. Meanwhile, back in the U.S., opposition to the Treaty of Versailles was growing. A 2/3 vote by the U.S. Senate is needed to approve a president's treaty. A group, led by William Borah and Hiram Johnson, desired isolation and/or it would be unwise to turn American decision-making over to a group of foreign nations (the League of Nations).

Ida Tarbell

An American teacher, author, and journalist. Tarbell gradated From Allegheny College's class of 1880, then becoming America's first great woman journalist. She sought to create fairness and truth, and also refused to exploit her professional accomplishments for monetary gain or celebrity status. She was a very humble woman. Tarbell contributed to the Progressive Movement by writing the famous work, "The History of he Standard Oil Company". This book revealed the illegal means used by the Standard Oil billionaire John D. Rockefeller.

Herbert Croly

The New Nationalism plan had been inspired by The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly (1910). The book agreed with TR's old policy of leaving good trusts alone but controlling bad trusts.
The New Nationalism also pushed for female suffrage and social programs such as minimum wage laws social insurance programs. These such programs would later be manifested during the Great Depression in Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.

John spargo

5. John Spargo wrote The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906) exposing, and critical of, child labor.

Woodrow wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

Lillian Wald

founded the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities. She is considered the founder of public health nursing

Mary Baker eddy

She founded the Church of Christ(Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness. (No need for a doctor, if have enough faith can heal self). Wrote a widely purchased book, "Science and Health with a key to the Scriptures".

William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

Edward Bellamy

Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end

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