5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- A group of six students has taken samples of their own cheek cells, purified the DNA, and used a restriction enzyme known to cut at zero, one, or two sites in a particular gene of interest.
Analysis of the data obtained shows that two students each have two fragments, two students each have three fragments, and two students each have one only. What does this demonstrate?
A) Each pair of students has a different gene for this function.
B) Each of these students is heterozygous for this gene.
C) The students with three fragments are said to have "fragile sites."
D) The two students who have two fragments have two restriction sites within this gene.
E) The two students who have two fragments have one restriction site in this region.
- What are prions?
A) mobile segments of DNA
B) viruses that invade bacteria
C) tiny molecules of RNA that infect plants
D) misfolded versions of normal brain protein
E) viral DNA that has had to attach itself to the host genome
- In prophase I of meiosis in female Drosophila, studies have shown that there is phosphorylation of an amino acid in the tails of histones of gametes. A mutation in flies that interferes with this process results in sterility. Which of the following is the most likely hypothesis?
A) Histone tail phosphorylation prohibits chromosome condensation.
B) Histone tails must be removed from the rest of the histones.
C) All proteins in the cell must be phosphorylated.
D) Any mutation during oogenesis results in sterility.
E) These oocytes have no histones.
- In order to identify a specific restriction fragment using a probe, what must be done?
A) The fragments must be separated by electrophoresis.
B) The fragments must be separated by electrophoresis, the fragments must be treated with heat or chemicals to separate the strands of the double helix, and the probe must be hybridized with the fragment.
C) The fragments must be treated with heat or chemicals to separate the strands of the double helix.
D) The probe must be hybridized with the fragment.
E) The fragments must be separated by electrophoresis and the fragments must be treated
with heat or chemicals to separate the strands of the double helix.
- As genetic technology makes testing for a wide variety of genotypes possible, which of the following is likely to be an increasingly troublesome issue?
A) discrimination against certain racial groups because of major genetic differences
B) the need to legislate for the protection of the privacy of genetic information
C) using technology to identify genes that cause criminal behaviors D) alteration of human phenotypes to prevent early disease
E) use of genotype information to provide positive identification of criminals
- a B) The fragments must be separated by electrophoresis, the fragments must be treated with heat or chemicals to separate the strands of the double helix, and the probe must be hybridized with the fragment.
- b A) Histone tail phosphorylation prohibits chromosome condensation
- c B) the need to legislate for the protection of the privacy of genetic information
- d D) misfolded versions of normal brain protein
- e E) the two students who have two fragments have one restriction site
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- C) can encode proteins that promote DNA repair or cell-cell adhesion
- D) the germ cells of the adult
- B) decreased chromatin condensation
- B) RNA polymerase must bind to the promoter, and the repressor must be inactive
- D) host cells lack enzymes that can replicate the viral genome
5 True/False Questions
Expression of a cloned eukaryotic gene in a bacterial cell involves many challenges. The use of mRNA and reverse transcriptase is part of a strategy to solve the problem of
A) post-translational processing.
B) restriction fragment ligation.
C) nucleic acid hybridization.
D) post-transcriptional processing.
E) electroporation. → D) no AUG in any frame
A mutation that inactivates the regulatory gene of a repressible operon in an E. coli cell would result in
A) irreversible binding of the repressor to the operator.
B) continuous transcription of the structural gene controlled by that regulator.
C) inactivation of RNA polymerase by alteration of its active site.
D) complete inhibition of transcription of the structural gene controlled by that regulator.
E) continuous translation of the mRNA because of alteration of its structure. → D) continuous transcription of the operon's genes
Which viruses have single-stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis?
A) lytic phages
E) retroviruses → E) retroviruses
Pharmacogenetics is an increasingly important discipline that uses genetic information to tailor the prescription of drug treatments to individuals. In the case of chemotherapy for breast cancer, for example, different patients need and/or respond to different treatments.
Breast tumor biopsy specimens can be typed for a number of gene expression patterns. Together, these can provide risk analysis for the likely aggressive growth and metastasis of the tumor. How can this most help the physician and patient?
A) This can help them decide whether the tumor should be removed.
B) Some patients want to know as much as possible.
C) This can help to aggregate health statistics.
D) Some physicians may use the information to decide what to do, but not tell the patient.
E) This can help them to decide whether and what kind of chemotherapy is warranted. → C) The viral envelope mediates entry into the cell, the capsid entry into the nuclear membrane, and the genome is all that enters the nucleus.
DNA fragments from a gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose paper during the procedure called Southern blotting. What is the purpose of transferring the DNA from a gel to a nitrocellulose paper?
A) to attach the DNA fragments to a permanent substrate
B) to prepare the DNA for digestion with restriction enzymes
C) to separate the two complementary DNA strands
D) to separate out the PCRs
E) to transfer only the DNA that is of interest → C) it uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis