Which of the following sequences in double-stranded DNA is most likely to be recognized as a cutting site for a restriction enzyme?
DNA technology has many medical applications. Which of the following isnot done routinely at present?
A) production of hormones for treating diabetes and dwarfism
B) production of microbes that can metabolize toxins
C) introduction of genetically engineered genes into human gametes
D) genetic testing for carriers of harmful alleles
E) prenatal identification of genetic disease alleles
Which viruses have single-stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis?
A) lytic phages
A bacterium is infected with an experimentally constructed bacteriophage composed of the T2 phage protein coat and T4 phage DNA. The new phages produced would have
A) T4 protein and T4 DNA.
B) a mixture of the DNA and proteins of both phages.
C) T2 protein and T2 DNA.
D) T2 protein and T4 DNA.
E) T4 protein and T2 DNA.
Which of the following characteristics, structures, or processes is common to both bacteria and viruses?
B) genetic material composed of nucleic acid
C) cell division
E) independent existence
aC) introduction of genetically engineered genes into human gametes
bB) genetic material composed of nucleic acid
eA) T4 protein and T4 DNA
5 Multiple Choice Questions
C) can encode proteins that promote DNA repair or cell-cell adhesion
E) X inactivation in the embryo is random and produces different patterns
A) differentiated cells retain all the genes of the zygote
D) Dicer enzyme has reduced it to smaller double-stranded pieces
E) abnormalities of mouse embryos
5 True/False Questions
For a particular microarray assay (DNA chip), cDNA has been made from the mRNAs of a dozen patients' breast tumor biopsies. The researchers will be looking for
A) a pattern shared among some or all of the samples that indicates gene expression differing from control samples.
B) a pattern of fluorescence that indicates which cells are overproliferating.
C) a group of cDNAs that match those in non-breast cancer control samples from the same
D) a group of cDNAs that act differently from those on the rest of the grid.
E) a particular gene that is amplified in all or most of the patient samples. → A) a pattern shared among some or all of the samples that indicates gene expression differing from control samples
In the figure, when new viruses are being assembled (IV), what mediates the assembly?
A) nothing; they self-assemble
B) host cell chaperones
C) viral RNA intermediates
D) assembly proteins coded for by the viral genes
E) assembly proteins coded for by the host nucleus → C) a somatic plant cell can often give rise to a complete plant
You isolate an infectious substance that is capable of causing disease in plants, but you do not know whether the infectious agent is a bacterium, virus, viroid, or prion. You have four methods at your disposal that you can use to analyze the substance in order to determine the nature of the infectious agent.
I. treating the substance with nucleases that destroy all nucleic acids and then determining whether it is still infectious
II. filtering the substance to remove all elements smaller than what can be easily seen under a light microscope
III. culturing the substance by itself on nutritive medium, away from any plant cells
IV.treating the sample with proteases that digest all proteins and then determining whether it is still infectious
Which treatment would you use to determine if the agent is a prion? A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) IV only
E) either I or IV → D) Dicer enzyme has reduced it to smaller double-stranded pieces
What are prions?
A) mobile segments of DNA
B) viruses that invade bacteria
C) tiny molecules of RNA that infect plants
D) misfolded versions of normal brain protein
E) viral DNA that has had to attach itself to the host genome → C) mutation of existing viruses, the spread of existing viruses to new host species, and the spread of existing viruses more widely within their host species
Which of the following can be effective in preventing the onset of viral infection in humans?
A) applying antiseptics
B) getting vaccinated
C) taking nucleoside analogs that inhibit transcription
D) taking vitamins
E) taking antibiotics → B) getting vaccinated