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CHAPTERS 2,3,4 & 5.

WHAT DO SOCIOLOGISTS CALL TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER?

SOCIAL GROUP

What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as "college students"?

CATEGORY

Passengers sitting in an airport gate area to board a plane are an example of a

CROWD

Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the term

PRIMARY GROUP

Which of the following is every society's most important primary group?

FAMILY

Which of the following attributes is NOT characteristic of secondary groups?

Close enduring friendships

In general, we see the SECONDARY GROUP

as a means to an end

we see the PRIMARY GROUP

as an end in itself.

What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?

INSTRUMENTAL

What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?

COLLECTIVE

Solomon Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed

CONFORMITY

Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator," showed

CONFORMITY and OBEDIENCE to LEADERS

What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?

GROUPTHINK

Which of the following terms refers to a social group that people use as a point of evaluation in making evaluations or decisions?

REFERENCE

What is the term for a social group that commands a member's esteem and loyalty?

INGROUP

What is the term for a social group toward which we feel competition or opposition?

OUTGROUP

What is the sociological term for a social group with two members?

DYAD

Which statement reflects Simmel's understanding of the dyad?

LESS STABLE

WHAT IS A TRIAD?

THREE PEOPLE

Which of the following is typically true of a social network?

WEAK TIES & IDENTITY

Formal organizations are?

Institutionalized Social Grops, Goal Oriented

At a given time you occupy a number of statuses. These are your:

STATUS SET

WHAT defines who and what we are in relation to others.

STATUS

What is the term for a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life?

ascribed status

What is the term for a social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort?

ACHIEVED STATUS

Which of the following might well serve as a master status?

ALL OF THE ABOVE

Sociologists use what term to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?

ROLE

A role set refers to:

a number of roles attached to a single status.

Joan is an excellent artist, but finds she cannot devote enough time to her family.

ROLE STRAIN

What is the term for the tension among roles connected to a single status?

ROLE STRAIN

People disengage from important social roles?

ROLE EXIT

The Thomas theorem states that:

situations defined as real are real in their consequences

What plays a part in the reality we construct within social interaction?

ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT

Nonverbal communication refers to:

body movements, gestures, and facial expressions

In what way do men and women typically differ in their use of space?

Men commonly use more space than women

When interacting with people of an unfamiliar cultural background,:

what is funny to people in one society is often lost on those from another society.

People generate reality in their social interaction. T/F

TRUE

Social structure, including status and role, provides a guide for everyday living. T/F

TRUE

A status set refers to the roles people have over the course of their lifetimes T/F

FALSE

A role set refers to all the roles a person has ever performed. T/F

FALSE

Typically, many roles are linked to a single status. T/F

TRUE

People usually have more statuses than they have roles T/F

FALSE

Culture guides the display of emotions. T/F

TRUE

People sometimes use jokes to "put down" others--a basic form of social conflict T/F

TRUE

As a part of human culture, religion is an example of:

NON MATERIAL CULTURE

What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute a people's way of life?

CULTURE

Humans stand out among all forms of life as the only species that

relies on culture to ensure survival.

Sociologists define a symbol as:

Anything that carries a meaning to people who share a culture.

Cultural transmission refers to the process of:

passing cultural patterns from one generation to another.

Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:

VALUES

Which of the following is NOT a value central to U.S. culture, by sociologist Robin Williams?

MATERIAL COMFORT

The dominant values of U.S. culture share which of the following?

ALL OF THE ABOVE

Core cultural values

are sometimes in conflict with one another

Wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violating:

MORES

An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to

FOLKWAYS

It is correct to say that the development of more complex technology:

is mostly negative in its effects

The spread of virtual culture means that culture is now less likely to be

passed down from one generation to the next.

The distinction between high culture and popular culture is based primarily

the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern.

Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as:

POPULAR CULTURE

A century ago, most of those who immigrated to the United States came from:

EUROPE

Today, most immigrants to the United States arrive from

LATIN AMERICA AND ASIA

A subculture refers to:

cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population.

Multiculturalism is defined as:

an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equality of all cultural traditions

Cultural integration refers to the fact that:

change in one cultural pattern is usually linked to changes in others.

Comparing college students of the late 1960s, today's students are most likely to be concerned with:

MAKING MONEY

The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that:

some cultural elements change more quickly than others.

The text states that cultural change is set in motion in three general ways

invention, discovery, and diffusion

The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:

DIFFUSION

Ethnocentrism refers to:

judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.

A person who criticizes the Amish farmer as backward for tilling his fields with horses (instead of a tractor) is exhibiting:

ETHNOCENTRISM

Cultural universals are cultural traits that:

are part of every known culture

The U.S. has a popular culture, but not a high culture. T/F

FALSE

We all participate in numerous subcultures without necessarily becoming very committed to any of them. T/F

TRUE

Subculture is more at odds with dominant culture than counterculture. T/F

FALSE

The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, best shows that

without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action.

What is the lifelong social experience by which human beings learn culture?

SOCIALIZATION

What is the term for a person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?

PERSONALITY

Based on both the Harlows' research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna the isolated child, one might reasonably conclude

long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans.

Family is important to the socialization process because

ALL OF THE ABOVE

The special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes

exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting.

When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in

anticipatory socialization

In historical perspective, the power of the mass media in the socialization process has

increased over time

On average, a U.S. household has at least one television turned on for __________ hours a day.

OVER 7

Looking at childhood in global perspective, we find that

rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do.

Industrial societies typically define people in old age as

less aware and important than younger adults.

The survey of the life course in the text leads the reader to conclude that

while life-course stages are linked to biology, they are largely a social construction.

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