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Angiosperms

seed plants with reproductive structures called flowers and fruits

What are the reproductive structures of Angiosperms

fruits
flowers

Angiosperms are classified in what phylum

Anthophyte

The two main groups of angiosperms are

Monocot
Eudicot-Dicots
but there are 2 other sm groups..Basal Angiosperms and Magnolids

Monocot means

one cotyledon

Eudicot/Dicot means

more than one cotyledon

Basal Angiosperms

less derived and include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages

Magnolids

another type of angiosperm that share some traits with basal angiosperms but are more closely related to monocots and eudicots

what small lineages constitute the basal angiosperms?

Amborella trichopoda
water lilies
star anise

what is a trait of the basal angiosperms

short stalks

What are the three lineages of the Magnolids

magnolias
laurels
black pepper plants

Between the Magnolids and Basal Angiosperms which is more closely related to the monocots and eudicots

Magnolids

What percentage of angiosperm species are monocots?

25%

What kind of plants are monocots?

grasses; such as barley

How much does the Eudicots make up of the angiosperms species?

more than 2/3

Examples of Eudicots

Snow Pea
Zucchini Flower

Number of cotyledons: Dicot vs Monocot

D-2
M-1

Leaf Veination: Dicot vs Monocot

D-netlike
M-usually parallel

Stems: Dicot vs Monocot

D-vascular tissue usually arranged in ring; Pholem inside Xylem outside
M-Vascular tissue scattered

Roots: Dicots vs Monocot

D-taproot present
M-Root system usually fibrous

Pollen: Dicots vs Monocot

D-pollen grain with three openings
M-pollen grain with one opening

Flowers: Dicot vs Monocot

D-floral organs usually in groups of 4 or 5
M-floral organs usually in multiples of 3

The flower is an angiosperm structure specialized for

sexual reproduction

How may these species be pollinated?

insects
animals
wind

4 modified leaves of a flower

sepals
petals
stamens
carpels

Sepals

enclose the flower and located near the base

Petals

brightly colored and attract pollinators

These modified leaves produce pollen on their terminal ___

Stamens
anthers

This modified leave produces ovules

carpel

the carpel consist of what 3 major parts

stigma
style
ovary

the stamen consists of 2 major parts

anther
filament

In the angiosperm where are the male gametophytes contained?

pollen grains

pollen grains are produced by the micrsporangia of ___?

anthers

Another name for the female gametophye?

embryo sac

The embryo sac develops within an ___ contained within an ___ at the base of a stigma

ovule
ovary

cross-pollination

pollination between flowers form different plants of the same species

process of the pollen grain

stigma-->down style--->pollen tube forms--->ovary

Gymnosperms have single fertilization while angiosperms have ___ fertilization

double

double ferilization

when the pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within an ovule

the ovule is entered by a pore called the

micropyle

What are the three things the 2 sperms does?

fertilizes the egg
combines with two nuclei in the central cell of the female gametophyte
initiates development of food-storing endosperm

what does the endosperm do?

nourishes the developing embryo

cotyledon

seed leaves

what does the embryo consist of?

root
2 seed leaves-cotyledons

Figure 30.10-4

...

what does the fruit do for the seeds?

protect seeds
aid in dispersal

Mature fruits cand either be

fleshy
dry

Examples of fleshy fruits

tomatoes
grapefruits
nectarines

Examples of dry fruits

milkweed
hazelnut

How can seeds be dispersed

wind
water
animals

What are tow important relationships in terrestrial ecosystems

pollination of flowers
transport of seeds by animals

Bees pollinate

1/3 of crops and food in the diet of U.S. citizens

The monetary value of honey bees as commercial pollinators in the US is estimated at about

15-20 billion annually

Human welfare depends greatly on

seed plants

what percentage do wheat rice maize potatoes cassava and sweeet potatoes amount to in calories consumed by humans

40

At the current rate of habitat loss what percent of earths species will be come extinct within the next 100-200 years

50

Figure 30-UN3

...

Three F's of angiosperm life cycle

flowers
fertilization
fruits

What are the reproductive parts of the flower?

stamen
carpel

flowers are the reproductive shoots of the angiosperm ___?

sporophyte

the flower attaches to a part of the stem called the?

receptacle

a single carpel or group of fused carpels

pistil

flowers consist of four floral organs

sepals
petals
stamen
carpel

which flowers contain all four floral organs?

complete flowers

which flowers lack one or more floral organs, for example stamens or carpels

incomplete flowers

clusters of flowers are called

inflorescences

anther->____-> ____->meosis->4 ___-> haploid male gamete

microsporangia
microsporocytes(2n)
microspores (n)

If pollination succeeds, a ____ produces a ____ that grows down into the ovary and discharges sperm near the embryo sac

pollen grain
pollen tube

what does the pollen grain consist of?

two-celled male gametophyte
spore wall

the microspores contain 2 cells

generative cell
tube cell

where are the antipodal cells located

the upper portion of the embryo sac

what are the cells on either side of the egg

synergids

what role to the synergids have?

tell the pollen tube where to connect

This results form the discharge of 2 sperm from the pollen the into the embryo sac

double fertilization

One sperm fertilizes the egg, and the other sperm does?

combines with the polar nuclei, giving rise to the triploid food-storing endosperm

what does double fertilization ensure?

the endosperm develops only in the ovules where the egg has been fertilized

In most monocots and some eudicots the endosperm stores?

nutrition

After double fertilization what develops into a seed?

ovule

What develops into the fruit enclosing the seed (s)?

ovary

In other eudicots, the food reserves of the endosperm are exported to the

cotyledons

The first mitotic division of the zygote is transverse, splitting the fertilized egg into what two cells?

basal cells
terminal cells

The basal cells create the

roots

the terminal cells create the

shoots

the embryo and its food supply are enclosed by a hard protective coat know as

seed coat

When the seed doesn't have the right conditions to grow it will enter a state of

dormancy

cotyledons

seed leaves

In some eudicots, such as the common garden bean, the embryo consists of the embryonic axis attached to

two thick cotyledons

above the cotyledon is called the

epicotyl

below the cotyledon the embryonic axis is called the

hypocotyl

the hypocotyl terminates in the

radical

Figure 38-8a

...

a monocot embryo has

one cotyledon

grasses, such as maize and wheat, have a special cotyledon called

scutellum

Two sheathes enclose the embryo of a grass seed; what are they?

coleoptile
colerhize

the coleoptile covers

the young shoot

coleorhize covers

the young root

Breaking seed dormancy often requires environmental cues, such as

temp
light

Germination depends on

imbibition

imbibition

the uptake of water due to low water potential of the dry seed

what emerges from the see first

radicle

After the radicle the ___ breaks through the soil

shoot tip

In many eduicots, a hook forms in the ___ and growth pushed the hook above ground

hypocotyl

what does the hook pull up

cotyledons and the shoot tip

In maize and other grasses, which are monocots, the ___ pushed up thorugh the soil

coleoptile

what depelops from the ovary

fruit

what does the fruit provide for the seeds

protection
aids in dispersal by wind or animals

how is a fruit classified as dry?

ovary dries out at maturity

how is a fruit classified as fleshy

if the ovary becomes thick, soft and sweet at maturity

Three types of fruit

simple
aggregate
multiple

simple fruit

single or several fused carpels; apples

aggregate fruit

a single flower with multiple separate carpels; berry

multiple fruit

group of flowers called an inflorescence; pineapple

accessory fruit

contains other floral parts in addition to ovaries

sexual reproduction

results in offspring that are genetically different from their parents

asexual reproduction

results in a clone of genetically identical organisms

fragmentation

separation of a parent plants into parts that develops into whole plants, is a very common type of asexual reproduction

asexual reproduction is also know as

vegetative reproduction

Problem of asexual reproduction

a clone of a plant is vulnerable to local extinction if there is an environmental change

Benefit of sexual reproduction

generate genetic variation that makes evolutionary adaptation possible

problem of sexual reproduction

only a fraction of seedlings will survive

dioecious species

have staminate and carpellate flowers on separate plants

What is another way besides that of dioecious species to prevent selfing

stamens and carpels mature at different times or are arranged to prevent like that of the Thrum and Pin flower.
Thrum-stamen tall style short; Pin flower-style tall stamen short

self-incompatibility

a plants ability to reject its own pollen

How plants recognize self-incompatibility

if the pollen has a S gene matching an allele in the stigma cells
triggers a signal transduction pathway leading to a block in growth of a pollen tube

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