seed plants with reproductive structures called flowers and fruits
What are the reproductive structures of Angiosperms
Angiosperms are classified in what phylum
The two main groups of angiosperms are
but there are 2 other sm groups..Basal Angiosperms and Magnolids
more than one cotyledon
less derived and include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages
another type of angiosperm that share some traits with basal angiosperms but are more closely related to monocots and eudicots
what small lineages constitute the basal angiosperms?
what is a trait of the basal angiosperms
What are the three lineages of the Magnolids
black pepper plants
Between the Magnolids and Basal Angiosperms which is more closely related to the monocots and eudicots
What percentage of angiosperm species are monocots?
What kind of plants are monocots?
grasses; such as barley
How much does the Eudicots make up of the angiosperms species?
more than 2/3
Examples of Eudicots
Number of cotyledons: Dicot vs Monocot
Leaf Veination: Dicot vs Monocot
Stems: Dicot vs Monocot
D-vascular tissue usually arranged in ring; Pholem inside Xylem outside
M-Vascular tissue scattered
Roots: Dicots vs Monocot
M-Root system usually fibrous
Pollen: Dicots vs Monocot
D-pollen grain with three openings
M-pollen grain with one opening
Flowers: Dicot vs Monocot
D-floral organs usually in groups of 4 or 5
M-floral organs usually in multiples of 3
The flower is an angiosperm structure specialized for
How may these species be pollinated?
4 modified leaves of a flower
enclose the flower and located near the base
brightly colored and attract pollinators
These modified leaves produce pollen on their terminal ___
This modified leave produces ovules
the carpel consist of what 3 major parts
the stamen consists of 2 major parts
In the angiosperm where are the male gametophytes contained?
pollen grains are produced by the micrsporangia of ___?
Another name for the female gametophye?
The embryo sac develops within an ___ contained within an ___ at the base of a stigma
pollination between flowers form different plants of the same species
process of the pollen grain
stigma-->down style--->pollen tube forms--->ovary
Gymnosperms have single fertilization while angiosperms have ___ fertilization
when the pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within an ovule
the ovule is entered by a pore called the
What are the three things the 2 sperms does?
fertilizes the egg
combines with two nuclei in the central cell of the female gametophyte
initiates development of food-storing endosperm
what does the endosperm do?
nourishes the developing embryo
what does the embryo consist of?
2 seed leaves-cotyledons
what does the fruit do for the seeds?
aid in dispersal
Mature fruits cand either be
Examples of fleshy fruits
Examples of dry fruits
How can seeds be dispersed
What are tow important relationships in terrestrial ecosystems
pollination of flowers
transport of seeds by animals
1/3 of crops and food in the diet of U.S. citizens
The monetary value of honey bees as commercial pollinators in the US is estimated at about
15-20 billion annually
Human welfare depends greatly on
what percentage do wheat rice maize potatoes cassava and sweeet potatoes amount to in calories consumed by humans
At the current rate of habitat loss what percent of earths species will be come extinct within the next 100-200 years
Three F's of angiosperm life cycle
What are the reproductive parts of the flower?
flowers are the reproductive shoots of the angiosperm ___?
the flower attaches to a part of the stem called the?
a single carpel or group of fused carpels
flowers consist of four floral organs
which flowers contain all four floral organs?
which flowers lack one or more floral organs, for example stamens or carpels
clusters of flowers are called
anther->____-> ____->meosis->4 ___-> haploid male gamete
If pollination succeeds, a ____ produces a ____ that grows down into the ovary and discharges sperm near the embryo sac
what does the pollen grain consist of?
two-celled male gametophyte
the microspores contain 2 cells
where are the antipodal cells located
the upper portion of the embryo sac
what are the cells on either side of the egg
what role to the synergids have?
tell the pollen tube where to connect
This results form the discharge of 2 sperm from the pollen the into the embryo sac
One sperm fertilizes the egg, and the other sperm does?
combines with the polar nuclei, giving rise to the triploid food-storing endosperm
what does double fertilization ensure?
the endosperm develops only in the ovules where the egg has been fertilized
In most monocots and some eudicots the endosperm stores?
After double fertilization what develops into a seed?
What develops into the fruit enclosing the seed (s)?
In other eudicots, the food reserves of the endosperm are exported to the
The first mitotic division of the zygote is transverse, splitting the fertilized egg into what two cells?
The basal cells create the
the terminal cells create the
the embryo and its food supply are enclosed by a hard protective coat know as
When the seed doesn't have the right conditions to grow it will enter a state of
In some eudicots, such as the common garden bean, the embryo consists of the embryonic axis attached to
two thick cotyledons
above the cotyledon is called the
below the cotyledon the embryonic axis is called the
the hypocotyl terminates in the
a monocot embryo has
grasses, such as maize and wheat, have a special cotyledon called
Two sheathes enclose the embryo of a grass seed; what are they?
the coleoptile covers
the young shoot
the young root
Breaking seed dormancy often requires environmental cues, such as
Germination depends on
the uptake of water due to low water potential of the dry seed
what emerges from the see first
After the radicle the ___ breaks through the soil
In many eduicots, a hook forms in the ___ and growth pushed the hook above ground
what does the hook pull up
cotyledons and the shoot tip
In maize and other grasses, which are monocots, the ___ pushed up thorugh the soil
what depelops from the ovary
what does the fruit provide for the seeds
aids in dispersal by wind or animals
how is a fruit classified as dry?
ovary dries out at maturity
how is a fruit classified as fleshy
if the ovary becomes thick, soft and sweet at maturity
Three types of fruit
single or several fused carpels; apples
a single flower with multiple separate carpels; berry
group of flowers called an inflorescence; pineapple
contains other floral parts in addition to ovaries
results in offspring that are genetically different from their parents
results in a clone of genetically identical organisms
separation of a parent plants into parts that develops into whole plants, is a very common type of asexual reproduction
asexual reproduction is also know as
Problem of asexual reproduction
a clone of a plant is vulnerable to local extinction if there is an environmental change
Benefit of sexual reproduction
generate genetic variation that makes evolutionary adaptation possible
problem of sexual reproduction
only a fraction of seedlings will survive
have staminate and carpellate flowers on separate plants
What is another way besides that of dioecious species to prevent selfing
stamens and carpels mature at different times or are arranged to prevent like that of the Thrum and Pin flower.
Thrum-stamen tall style short; Pin flower-style tall stamen short
a plants ability to reject its own pollen
How plants recognize self-incompatibility
if the pollen has a S gene matching an allele in the stigma cells
triggers a signal transduction pathway leading to a block in growth of a pollen tube