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Long-Term Memory

working memory

brief, immediate memory for material we are currently processing

long-term memory

has large capacity; contains our memory for experiences and information that we have accumulated over a lifetime.

episodic memory

memories for events that happened to you; it allows you to travel backward in subjective time to reminisce about earlier episodes in your life.

semantic memory

describes organized knowledge about the world, including your knowledge about words and other factual information.

procedural memory

refers to your knowledge about how to do something (riding a bicycle).

encoding

initial acquisition of information; this is the time when information is embedded in your memory.

retrieval

locating information in storage and assessing that information.

autobiographical memory

memory for events/topics related to your own everyday life.

levels-of-processing approach

deep, meaningful kinds of information processing lead to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of processing (also called depth-of-processing approach).

distinctiveness

a stimulus is different from other memory traces. One of the factors encouraging recall in deep processing.

elaboration

second factor that operates with deep levels of processing. Requires rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts.

self-reference effect

you remember more information if you try to relate that information to yourself.

meta-analysis technique

statistical method for synthesizing numerous studies on a single topic. Index that tells us whether a variable has a statistically significant effect.

encoding specificity principle

recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context.

recall

the act of recalling the items learned earlier

recognition

the act of identifying whether they saw a particular item at an earlier time.

emotion

a reaction to a specific stimulus

mood

more general, long-lasting experience.

Pollyanna Principle

pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items.

positivity effect

people tend to rate past events more positively with the passage of time.

mood congruence

you'll recall material more accurately if it is congruent with your mood.

social goals

refers to your style of interacting with other people, in terms of friendships and other interpersonal relationships.

approach social goals

high score -- tend to emphasize close relationships with other people.

avoidance social goals

high score -- tend to avoid close relationships with other people

explicit memory task

researcher directly instructs participants to remember information; the participants are conscious that their memory is being tested, and the test requires them to intentionally retrieve some information they previously learned.

two types of explicit memory tasks

recall test, recognition test

implicit memory tasks

More indirect than explicit. People see the material; later, during the test phase people are instructed to complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask for either recall or recognition. Researchers avoid using the words "remember" and "recall"

repetition priming task

recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word, when you are given a cue that could evoke many different words.

dissociation

occurs when a variable has large effects on Test A, but little or no effects on Test B; this also occurs when a variable has one kind of effect if measured by Test A, and exactly the opposite effect if measured by Test B.

proactive interference

people have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with our new learning.

amnesia

people who have severe deficits in their episodic memory

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occurred PRIOR to brain damage; the deficit is especially severe for events that occurred during the years just before the damage.

anterograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that have occurred AFTER brain damage.

hippocampus

a structure underneath the cortex that is important in many earning and memory tasks.

expertise

a person who has this shows consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular area.

own-race bias

people are generally more accurate in identifying members of their own ethnic group than members of another ethnic group.

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