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just some terms from the practice final

a passanger is in the rar seat of a car moving at a steady speed is at rest relative to

the front seat of the car

which distance can be most accurately measured with a ruler?

the width of a book

one kilometer equals 1000 meters. what does the prefix kilo- mean?

1000

a person walks 1 mile every day for exercise, leaving her front porch at 9:00 am. and returning to her front porch at 9:25 am. What is the total displacement of her daily walk?

0

a ball is rolled uphill a distance of 5 meters before it slows, stops, and begins to roll back. The ball rolls downhill 9 meters before coming to rest against a tree. What is the magnitude of the ball's displcaement?

4 meters

speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to

the amount of time needed to travel the distance

instantaneous speed is measured

at a particular instant

a car traveled 60 km in 2 hours, 84 km in the next hour, and then 68 km in 2 hours before reaching its destination. What was the car's average speed?

148 km/h

the slope of a line on a distance-time graph is

speed

a horizontal line on a distance-time graph means the object is

moving at a constant speed

a distance-time graph indicates that an object moves 100 m in 4 s and then remains at rest for 6 s. What is the average speed of the object?

10 m/s

the rate at which velocity changes is called

acceleration

objects in free fall near the surface of the Earth experience

constant acceleration

suppose you increase your walking speed from 1 m/s to 3 m/s in a period of 1 s. What is your acceleration?

2 m/s to the second power

an object moving at 30 m/s takes 5 s to come to a stop. What is the object's acceleration?

-6 m/s to the second power

the slope of a speed-time graph indicates

acceleration

an object that is accelerating may be

slowing down, changing speed, gaining speed all these are correct

the SI unit of force is the

newton

when an unbalanced force acts on an object,

the object accelerates

when a pair of balanced forces acts on an object, the net force that results is

equal to zero

as you push a cereal box across a tabletop, the sliding friction acting on the cereal box

acts in the direction opposite of motion

the forces acting on a falling leaf are

gravity and air resistance

the property of matter that resists changes in motion is called

inertia

according to Newton's second law of motion, acceleration of an object equals the net force acting on the object divided by the object's

mass

if a force of 12 N is applied to an object with a mass of 2 kg, the object will accelerate at

6 m/s to the second power

your weight equals your

mass times the acceleration due to gravity

the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Mars is about one third the acceleration due to gravity on Earth's surface. The weight of a space probe on the surface of Mars is about

one third its weight on Earth's surface

Newton's third law of motion describes

action and reaction forces

the product of an object's mass and velocity is its

momentum

what is the momentum of a 50-kilogram ice skater gliding across the ice at a speed of 5 m/s?

250 kg.m/s

what is the unit of work?

joule

if you exert a force of 10.0 N to lift a box a distance of 0.9 m, how much work do you do?

9.0 J

if you perform 40 joules of work lifting a 10-N box from the floor to a shelf, how high is the shelf?

4.0 m

work is a transfer of

energy

the energy of motion is alled

kinetic energy

a small 20-kilogram canoe is floating downriver at a speed of 2 m/s. What is the canoe's kinetic energy?

40 J

a 4-kilogram cat is resting on top of a bookshelf that is 3 meters high. What is the cat's gravitational potential energy relative to the floor if the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s to the second power?

118 J

walking converts what type of energy into mechanical energy?

chemical

nuclear power plants are designed to convert nuclear energy into what type of energy?

electrical

Which of the following statements is true according to the law of conservation of energy?

energy cannot be created, energy cannot be destroyed, energy can be converted from one form to another, all are corrct

the study of Earth's composition, structure, and history is called

geology

the three main layers of Eath's interior are the

crust, mante, core

a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition is a

mineral

rocks are classified as

igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

intense heat, intense pressure, or reactions with hot water can modify a pre-existing rock to form a

metamorphic rock

a series of processes in which rocks are continously changed from one type to another called

the rock cycle

what changes are involved when mud from a lake bottom turns into sedimentary rock and then into a metamorphic rock?

compaction and cementation and then heat and pressure

the hypothesis taht the continents move slowly over Earth's surface and once were joined into one supercontinent is called

plate techtonics

new ocean crust is formed along

mid-ocean ridges

plates slide past each other, and crust is neither created nor destroyed, at a

transform boundary

stress in Earth's crust is caused by

plate movements

what is the name of the location within Earth where an earthquake begins

focus

in a diagram depicting the solar system as heliocentric, what is located at the center?

the sun

which of the following is the most likely reason that ancient observers believed taht Earth was the center of the universe?

objects in the sky appear to circle around Earth

the orbit of a planet around the sun is a

ellipse

which of the following objects does NOT orbit directly around the sun?

comets

what led to the discovery of three more planets than those that the ancient observers knew about?

the invention of the telescope in 1600

who was the first american in space

alan shepard

why does Earth's moon have no atmosphere?

there are no planets to release oxygen

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