Mentalis

Origin: body of the mandible
Insertion: skin of the chin
Action: elevates, protracts, and depresses lower lip

Depressor labii inferioris

Origin: inferior margin of the mandible
Insertion: orbicularis oris muscle
Action: depresses lower lip

Orbicularis oris

Origin: medial planes of maxillae and mandible
Insertion: lips
Action: compresses and protrudes the lips

Buccinator

Origin: aveolar processes of the maxillae and mandible
Insertion: corner of the mouth
Action: compress cheeks

risorious

Origin: masseter muscle
Insertion: corner of mouth
Action: retracts corner of the mouth

Levator labii superioris

Origin: infraorbital maxillae
Insertion: upper lip
Action: elevates upper lip

Zygomaticus major

Origin: zygomatic bone
Insertion: corner of the mouth
Action: draws corner of the mouth

Zygomaticus minor

Origin: zygomatic bone
Insertion: orbicularis oris muscle
Action: elevates upper lip

Orbicularis Oculi

Origin: medial orbital margin
Insertion: skin around the orbit
Action: closes eyelid

Nasalis

Origin: superior maxilla
Insertion: nasal cartilage
Action: draws nasal ala medially

Epicranius

compound structure containing epicranial aponeurosis, occipitofrontalis, occipital belly, and the frontal belly

Galea aponeurosis

connective tissue portion of epicranius

occipitalis

Origin: occipital bone
Insertion: epicranial aponeurosis
Action: retracts scalp

frontalis

Origin: epicranial aponeurosis
Insertion: skin of forhead and eyebrows
Action: elevates eyebrows and scalp

Temporalis

Origin: temporal fossa of cranium
Insertion: coronoid process of mandible
Action: elevates mandible

Masseter

Origin: zygomatic arch
Insertion: lateral ramus of the mandible
Action: elevates and protracts mandible

Platysma

Origin: fascia of shoulder
Insertion: mandible, cheek, and orbicularis oris
Action: depresses mandible, tenses skin of neck

Anterior Scalene

Origin: transverse process of vertebrae C4-C6
Insertion: 1st rib
Action: elevates 1st rib, laterally flexes neck

Middle Scalene

Origin: transverse process of vertebrae C4-C6
Insertion: 1st rib
Action: elevates 1st rib, laterally flexes neck

Posterior Scalene

Origin: transverse process of vertebrae C4-C6
Insertion: 2nd rib
Action:elevates 2nd rib, laterally flexes neck

Sternocleidomastoid

Origin: manubrium and medial 1/3 of clavicle
Insertion: mastoid process and lateral occipital bone
Action: rotation of the head and neck

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