Why study sex?
1). Big part of society, practical reasons. 2).curiosity 3). Avoid problems in the area of sexuality
Recognized homosexuality and heterosexuality. Used myths to recognize this nature. Humans once double beings, split in two because of the fear of the God's had of their power.
15th century Christians
They did understand that sexual things happened that people did not want to be responsible for. Came up with the idea that spiritual beings got human beings pregnant. Incubi- male spirit creatures. Succubi- female spirit creatures. These creatures might cause problems. Wet dream is a nocturnal- It was a sin to waste that sperm. Sodomy- un natural sex (not to reproduce) is sinful.
Intercourse is one of lifes highest pleasures. Having sex with a virgin is something promised to a muslim in their afterlife after a heroic act is committed.
Dutch Scientist Anton van Leewenhoek
He is the first to claim that he saw sperm swimming in the human seamen. Huge scientific event
German scientist Oskar Hertwig
First to watch the fertilization of a sea urchins egg
Was not observed until the 20th century
Views shifted to sexuality when he couldn't diagnose certain patients. During the Victorian era when any sexual issues arose, they were pushed down. 1800's into the 1900's sexuality was something you never talked about. Nice wives never had sex unless it was to have children. Un lady like if you showed anything besides your head or hands. Long table clothes that went all the way to the ground because curved table legs could also be seen as sexy. Common for a guy to have a mistress, the wives often knew that they were fooling around but kind of just turned the other cheek.
1896 when he published, The Psychology of Sex. He was in europe and started gathering information about sex. Both women and men were believed to be sexual beings. Deviant sexual acts were seen as harmless to him. Encouraged tolerance, was objective, academic and scholarly. He did not attach judgement either.
Richard von Kraft-Ebing
Was a german psychiatrist, decided to look at the pathological sexual behavior. Very judgmental about the behavior. Saidism- sexual pleasure for causing pain. Masochisim- being in pain causes sexual pleasure. 1888 published; Psycopathia sexual- his book that focused on deviant sexual behavior. Believed that homosexuality was due to Justation: Having a baby in your tummy for 9 months. Homosexuals were seen as normal people but now they are seen as something that might have happened in euterou.
Founded the first sex institute and gave the first large scale sex survey to ten thousand people. Each person answered 130 questions. Started the first journal devoted to sexual behavior. He did marriage counseling, gave advice on contraception and sexual behavior and he was a homosexual AND transvestite. Most information in the journal was destroyed by Nazi's.
Born in America. Did another large scale survey, but was the first to do it with American's. 18,000 people were interviewed
Masters and Johnson
What happens to the body when you become sexually aroused? They did the study to figure out what happened. They did their studies in America. Masters was medical doctor who wanted to study sexual behavior so he hired Johnson to work with him.
Anthropologist Margaret Mead and Malinowski
Mead was very helpful in discovering other cultures and their sexuality, came up with theory that there was more than one way to have sex.
What we see on Tv, we really believe is a reflection of reality. "Mainstream"
The media sets what is important by publishing certain things. They run what we think is important and what we should be talking about
What we see in the media, we are easily influenced to copy.
We are thinking ours is the only and the best way. This is not true as seen through Mead. We know that we are one culture who views and experiences sex one way
1. All cultures regulate sex in one way. It does vary when it comes to different cultures but it is regulated 2. Incest taboos are nearly universal. Sex between blood relatives.3. Most cultures do condemn forced sexual behavior.
As seen in Brazil, sexual partners bite off parts of the eyebrow. This is not an uncommon practice.
Generally seen as the same around the world except for in Thonga of S. Africa
Mouth stimulation of female. Seen in the Pacific, especially on the island of Ponape where you stick a fish in a females vagina and eat it out
Variations in Sexual frequency
Off the coast of Ireland sex 1 to 2 times a month is very common. In the Pacific islands it is normal for that culture to have sex several times at night. The South Asian culture has sex several times during the day. America falls right in the middle with only having sex 2 to 3 times a week
Variations in masturbation
Some cultures teach you how to masturbate, some know it's going on and just don't make a big deal about it. Some even condemn it.
Variations in sex outside marriage
Pre-marital- Polynesians encourage this and teach it around the age children hit puberty. Some, Like Egypt, discourage it buy clipping off the female clitoris by the age of 7 or 8. Sex before marriage is seen as wrong. 74% of cultures forbid extra martial sex. If it is allowed it is usually the male that has the affair.
Variations in same-gender partners
No matter how a particular society treats homosexuality, the behavior always occurs in at least some individuals. Males are more likely to engage in same gender sexual behavior than females. Same-gender sexual behavior is never the pre dominant form of sexual behavior for adults in any societies studied.
Variations in attractiveness
Some societies elongate the ears and necks. Some even do it to the lips. We are the minority of the cultures when it comes to not seeing plump women as attractive since some societies view that as having money. But in all countries, bad complexion is seen as unattractive.
Applying the principles of evolutionary biology to the social behavior of animals, including humans
Attractiveness and why it matters
This is because they look healthy, that is why they look attractive to us. Health focuses on having a healthy viable mate
1). Competition- Within a group of people you're going to have competition for different sexual mates. 2). Preferential treatment- When one acts a certain way to the one that they are searching for.
Uses principles of evolution to view psychological traits of sexual strategies.
Short term you just wanted to look good and be willing
2. Long term you are still having sex but you're more committed to the person and you're not fooling around with anyone else
Male v. Females:
Money is a short term thing that girls want. Short term for guys is sex. When it comes to long term girls still care about the money but they want it long term and committed. Guys long term is them asking questions like are you committed long term for just having sex with me?
Created by Freud. Id, ego and superego
Is all about the instant gratification. It is driven by the pleasure principle. "If I want it, I'm going to get it."
Driven by the reality principle. Try's to keep the ID and the superego balanced
This is your ideal self in a perfect world. This is how you want to appear.
Freud Psychosexual stages
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital
This is the first stage of life. All the pleasures that a baby receives is all oral. Any want that they get is physical. Pleasure centered.
1 to 3 years of age the children have pleasure by controlling their BM and their bladder
Age 3 to 5 that the penis is envious that the boys have it and the girls regret that they don't have it
5 to 12. They are not aware of anything sexual. All sexual pleasure is dormant.
This is the last stage that you are stuck with for the rest of your life. You get pleasure and give pleasure for the rest of you life
Vaginal V Clitoral orgasm
Part of their body that is stimulated to bring them orgasm. Freud thought that women who orgasmed are seen as more mature. There is actually no difference in orgasm no matter which way you do it
Gender schema theory- in the 1980's and 1990's we started to deal with how you see and react to different experiences. This says we have a mental framework for males and females and we process information based on this gender schema
Sex is learned as you go along
Judeo Christian belief system sex is not something you should be engaging in if you are not married. In order for you to pro-create a marriage should only be between a male and a female
in the early years you stayed around your family. During the industrial revolution, you went away from your family and found your own relationships
They provided you with what you needed to live. The quality of the relationships was important, nut now it has shifted and the family has not become the main thing now but the individual can call the shots. This is called relational ideology
Therapeutic ideology where sex can be used for therapy
Tells us what is right and wrong, legal and illegal. Laws are the basis for social control. You know what's legal and illegal but consequences will happen. The law is reflective of the group in charge
Ira's Reis's theory linking society and sexuality
Kinship system, power structure and ideology of society
Regulating the sexual behavior of partners
The members of the society that have the most power are the ones that control the sexual behavior of all the members.
Ideology of society
Deciding what is right or wrong
Religion, economy, family, medicine and law
People who aren't willing to participate. They may actually be very different from those who are willing to give their information
Reliability of self-reports
They may not tell you the complete truth, they may distort the truth, they may not recall accurately
Cost V. information gathered
Interviews are much more expensive. You have to pay the interviewers and have to pay them to actually go and get the interviews. This may provide you with more detail and richer information. This may also give inaccurate information. You may not be willing to give all your info to the interviewer.
Are cheaper and may be more accurate because they are annonomous. There are now web base surveys. This opens up the number of people you have involved in your study. People are more willing to open up online than with someone face to face. They just tend to feel safer in their room.
Self-report V Direct observation
Self report: You may have a bias from the people who are choosing to participate in your study. They may be different than the majority of the population.
Direct observation: Time consuming and sometimes you have bias whenever you report it.
Age; gender; wording. Maybe you're uncomfortable with who is interviewing you. The way things are worded may make you feel uncomfortable bc there might even be judgment attached to it.
Big money can be given to an area to participate in the study. Oppostition from political groups based on values, religion, use to tax money
Major sex surveys
The Kinsey report: 1938 to 1949
Male report in 1948; female in 1953
Sample were large but not random
Used face to face interviews
He asked questions that were sometimes leading because he was assuming that the question was relevant to the subject answering the question.
Most of the time they were living in the city, they were educated, young, white and living in the city.
Tended to seek out people with unusual sexual behavior.
NHSLS: National Health and Social Life Survey
Wanted to see national norms
Excluded 3% of the us population
Included those institutions
Lack of funding kept numbers small 3,432
Did not interview people in prison.
Large number, but not representative bc not every one reads those magazines
Certain magazines cater to a target group.
Surveys with special populations
Male homosexuals in Wales an dEngland
Males who have sex with Males
Used snowballing technique- started out small then it grew
Gave diaries to record information
Master's and Johnson's research- 1954
Studied physiological responses to sex
Used paid volunteers
694 total; married and single
age range from 18 to 89
assumed response is same in all people
Did direct study and developed the stages of sexual arousal
Women were 18 to 78 me were 21 to 89
276 married couples but not everyone was married
106 single women
Most of them were white and educated bc the survey was advertised in newspapers
They assumed that whatever happened in one female happened in all.
Intercourse, masterbation and artificial sex
Laud Humphrey's Tearoom Trade
Impersonal sex between men in public places. A participant-observer study. Wrote down license plates, followed them home, then get there info.
Charles Mouser: S and M Behavior (1998)
Moser attended over 200 S-M parties
Internet invites or word-of-mouth
Parties may have a theme
Set of rules for each party
No intoxication allowed
Orgasm is not the goal.Safety is a priority,
Activity is sexual but pleasure is from roles,
Did not have informed consent
Moser believed consent was not necessary
Moser did not publish identifying information