Chapter 6 Anatomy and Physiology

Created by l_brady 

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abductors

muscles that seprate the fingers

adductors

muscles at the base of each finger that draws the fingers together

anabolism

the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones

anatomy

the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts

angular artery

artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose

anterior auricular artery

artery that supplies blood to the front part of the nose

aponeurosis

tendon that connects the occiptalis and the frontalis

arteries

thick walled muscular and flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries throughout the body

artium

one of the two upper chambers of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles (plural: atria)

auricularis anterior

muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward

auricularis posterior

muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backwards

auricularis superior

muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward

auricolutemporal nerve

nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull

autonomic nervous system

part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels and heart

axon

the process, or extension of a neuron by which impluses are sent away from the body of the cell

belly (muscle)

middle part of the muscle

biceps

muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper wall

blood

nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and to remove carbon dioxide and waste form them

blood vascular system

group of structures that distribute blood throughout the body

brain

part of the centeral nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles glandular activity and the power to think and feel

buccal nerve

nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth

buccinator

thin flat muscle of the chek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips

capillaries

thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins

cardiac muscle

the involuntary muscle that is the heart

carpus

the wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small irregular bones held together by ligaments

catabolism

the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the release of energy to perform functons such as muscular efforts, secretions or digestion

cell membrane

part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell

cells

basic units of all living things; minute masses of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life

central nervous system

cerebrospinal nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nervers and cranial nerves

cervical cutaneous nerve

nerve located at the side of the neck that affects the front and side of the neck as far down as th breastbone

cervical nerve

nerve that affects the side of the neck and the platysma muscle

cervical vertebrae

the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region

circulatory system

controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart ahd blood vessels

clavicle

collarbone; bone joining the sternum and the scapula

common carotid arteries

supply bloos to the face head and neck

connective tissue

fibrous tissue that binds together, protects and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilageand tendons

corrugator

facial muscle that draws the eyebrows down and wrinkles the forehead vertically

cranium

oval, bony case that protects the brain

cytoplasm

the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self repair of the cell

deltoid

large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder jointthat allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body

dendrites

tree like branch nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell

depressor labii inferioris

muscle surrounding the lower lip and draws it to one side, also known as the quadratus labii inferioris

diaphragm

muscular wall that seprates the thorax from the the abdominal region and helps control brathing

digestive system

change food into nutrients and wastes

digit

a finger or a toe

digital nerve

nerve that with its branches supplies the fingers and toes

endocrine glands

ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream

endocrine system

grou[ of specialized glands that affect growth, development, sexual actvities, and health of entire body

epicranius

broad muscle that covers the top of the skull; also called occipito frontalis

epithelial tissue

protective covering on body surfaces such as skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs and glands

excretory system

group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter

exhalation

the act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs

exocrine glands

glands that produce a substance that travels through small tubelike ductsm such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands

extensors

muscles that straighten the wrist, hand and fingers to form a straight line

external carotid artery

that supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck and side of head

external jugular vein

located on the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head face and neck

facial artery

supplies blood to the lower region of the fac, mouthand nose; also called the maxillary artery

fifth cranial nerve

cheif sensory nerve of the face; controls chewing, also known as trifacial or trigeminal nerve

flexors

extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in flexing the wrist

frontal artery

supplies blood to forehead and upper eyelid

frontal bone

bone forming the forehead

frontalis

front portion of the epicranium; muscle of the scalp

glands

specialized organs that remove certain constituents form the blood to convert them into new compounds

greater auricular nerve

nerve at the side of the neck affecting the face ears neck and parotid gland

greaer occipital nerve

located in the back of the head affecting the scalp

heart

mscular cone shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system

hemoglobin

coloring matter of the blood; the oxygen carrying pigment in the blood and iron containing protein in red blood cells

histology

science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy

hormones

secretion produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the blood stream or body fluid to another part of the body or a body organ to stimulate functional activity or secretion

humerus

uppermost and largesdt bone on the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder

hyoid

U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles also called the "Adam's apple"

inferior labial artery

supplies blood to the lower lip

infraorbital artery

originates from the maxillary artery and supplies blood to the muscles of the eye

infraorbital nerve

nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of nose, upper lip and mouth

infratrochlear nerve

nerve that affects to membrane and skin of the nose

inhalation

the breathing in of air

insertion

parts of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skelton

integumentary system

the skin and its accessiry organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors hair and nails

internal jugular vein

vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck

internal carotid artery

supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nosem and internal ear

joint

connection between two or more bones of the skelton

lacrimal bones

small, thin bones located in the anterior medial wall of the orbits (eye sockets)

latissimus dorsi

broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controllong the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm

levator labil superioris

muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste; also known as quadratus labii superioris

levator anguli oris

muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward, also known as caninus

liquid tissue

body tissue that carriers food, waste products, and hormones by means of blood and lymph

lungs

organs of respiration; spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one respiratory cycle

lymph

cler yellowish fluid tht circulates in the lymph spaces of the body; carries waste ad impurities away form the cells

lymph nodes

glandlike bodies in the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph

lymph vascular system

acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands

mandible

lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face

mandibular nerve

banch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face, also nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip

masseter

one of the muscles of the jaw used for chewing

maxillae

bones of the upper jaw

maxillary nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face

median nerve

smaller than the ulnar and radial nerves that supplies the arm and hand

mentalis

muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin

mental nerve

affects the skin of the lower lip and chin

metabolism

chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities

metacrpus

bones of the palm of the hand; containing five bones between the carpus and the phalanges

middle temporal artery

supplies blood to the temples

mitosis

cells dividing into two new cells; the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues

mixed nerves

nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to send and receive messages

motor (efferent) nerves

carry impluses fronm the brain to the muscles

muscular system

body system that covers, shapes and supports the skelton tissue, contracts and moves various parts of the body

muscular tissue

tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body

myology

science of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles

nasal bones

bones that form the bridge of the nose

nasal nerve

nerve that affects the point and lower sides of the nose

nerve

whitish cord made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted

nerve tissue

tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions

nervous system

body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently

neuron

nerve cell; basic unit of the neervous system, consiting of a cell body, nucleus, dendrites and axon

neurology

science and structure , function, and pathology of the nervous system

nonstriated muscles

also called involuntary, visceral, of smooth muscles, muscles that function automatically without conscious will

nucleus

dense, active protoplasm found i the center of the cell; plays an important part on cell reproduction and metabolism

occipital bone

hindmost bone of the skull, located below the parietal bones

occipitalis

back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward

ophthalmic nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball and nasal passage

opponent muscls

muscles in the palm that act to bring the thumb toward the fingers

orbicularis oculi

the ring muscle of the eye socket closes the eyelid

orbicularis oris

flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers and wrinkles the lips

organs

in plants and animals, structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions

origin

part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skelton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle

osteology

science of the anatomy, structure and function of the bones

parietal artery

artery that supplies the blood to the side and crown of head

parietal bones

bones that form the sides and top of the cranium

pectoralis major and minor

muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arms

pericardium

double layeed membranous sac enclosing the heart

peripheral nervous system

system of nervesand ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system, has both sensory and motor nerves

phalanges

bones of the fingers or toes (singular: phalanx)

physiology

study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures

plasma

fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells

platelets

blood cells that aid in the forming of clots

platysma

broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for depressing the lower jaw and lip

posterior auricular artery

supplies blood to the scalp, behind and above the ear

posterior auricular nerve

affects the muscles behind the ear and at the base of the skull

procerus

muscle that covers the bridge of the nose, depesses the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose

pronators

muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward

protoplasm

colorless jelly like substance in cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present

pulmonary circulation

blood circulation from heart to lungs and back to heart

radial artery

supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand; supplies the muscles of the skin, hands and fingers, wrist, elbow and forearm

radial nerve

supplies the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand

radius

smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb

red blood cels

also called red corpuscles or erythrocytes, blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and transport carbon dioxide from cells back to the lungs

reflex

automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction

reproductive system

body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring

respiration

act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen that takes place in the lungs between the bloos and cells and within the cell

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