Unit 2: Ch5-8

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50 terms · Cell Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Fermentation Mitosis

whats the movement of a protein from inside cell to the membrane?
Manufacturing
Transport
Processing
Transport
Secretion

Manufacturing : Rough ER
Transport: Vesicle from ER
Processing: Golgi Apparatus
Transport: Vesicle from GA
Secretion: Out of the plasma membrane.

Which plant cell organelle converts chemical fuel into packets of chemical energy that can power the cell?

Mitochondrion.

In both plant and animal cells, it's the mitochondria that convert chemical fuel into packets of chemical energy that can power the cell.

The plant cell wall

is a protective structure made of cellulose fibrils.

The cell wall is a structure that protects the plant cell and is made of cellulose fibrils.

Which of the following is a function of the central vacuole?

Storing compounds produced by the cell

One of the functions of the central vacuole is to store compounds produced by the cell.

_____ are found only in plant cells, but _____ are found in both plant and animal cells.

Central vacuoles; ribosomes

Central vacuoles are found only in plant cells. Ribosomes are found in both plant and animal cells.

Which of the following describes the function of the chloroplast?

The chloroplast converts light energy to chemical energy.

The chloroplast makes food for the plant cell by converting light energy to chemical energy.

Which organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion?

plasmodesma

lysosome

The prefix "lyso-" means decomposition.

_____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.

Pili

Pili enable bacterial cells to stick to a surface.

What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?

A bacterium's capsule has a protective role.

Where is a bacterial cell's DNA found?

Bacteria lack a nucleus; their DNA is found in the nucleoid region.

In a bacterium, where are proteins synthesized?

Ribosomes are involved in the manufacture of polypeptides (proteins).

What name is given to the rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell?

The cell wall is a rigid supporting structure.

The _____ is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell.

The plasma membrane is selectively permeable.

How many primary cilia stick out of cells that have them?

1

Cilia have the same structure as which of the following?
lysosomes
Golgi apparatus
endoplasmic reticulum
flagella

FLAGELLA

The first link between primary cilia and disease was found in a disease of which organ?

Kidney

Sonic hedgehog is an important what?

Protein

Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?

DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus.

The structural framework in a cell is the

The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework).

Where in a cell is ATP made?

Mitochondria

What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?

The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by

Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER.

Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?

The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.

Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?

Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.

Where are lipids made in the cell?

Smooth ER

What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?

Plasma membrane

Animal cells are surrounded by a(n) ________________, whereas plant cells are also surrounded by a(n) ________________ .

plasma membrane; cell wall

Which organelles comprise the endomembrane system of a cell?

endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome

Plant cells have two energy-related organelles. ________________ harness light energy to create sugars and ________________ break down these sugars to create ATP.

chloroplasts; mitochondria

What are the three organelles that plant cells have but animal cells do not?

chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wall

The ____________________ builds compounds, whereas the ________________ breaks things down.

endoplasmic reticulum; lysosome

In eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the _____.

Transcription is the first of the two main steps of protein synthesis.

The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.

Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules.

entropy

A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.

chemical energy

Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy.

cellular respiration

The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.

potential energy

The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.

What compound directly provides energy for cellular work?

ATP

If humans did not breathe in O2, we would not __________.

make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements

What is energy?

the capacity to perform work

The movement of atoms, ions, or molecules from a region of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration is called _____.

Diffusion

describe what occurs in facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion utilizes transport proteins.

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called _____

Osmosis

If the volume of a cell increases when it is placed in a solution, that solution is said to be _____ to the cell.

hypotonic
If a cell is transferred to an environment that is hypotonic (having a lower solute concentration), water will enter faster than it leaves and the cell will swell and lyse.

Mitosis

A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis.

Prophase

The first stage of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact.

Metaphase

The third stage of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.

Anaphase

The fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.

Telophase

The fifth and final stage of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.

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