the period after puberty begins and before adult roles are taken on
plato's 3 life stages
infancy (birth - age 7)
childhood (ages 7-14)
adolescence (ages 14-21)
plato's beliefs on eduction during infancy
mind too underdeveloped to learn much
plato's beliefs on education during childhood
focus on sports and music
plato's beliefs on education during adolescence
capacity for reason; science and math
key changes for establishing modern characteristic of adolescence in 1890-1920
laws restricting child labor
requirements for children to attend secondary school
development of study of adolescence (G. Stanley Hall)
founder of the study of adolescence
G Stanley Hall
G Stanley Hall's key ideas
Child Study Movement
Storm and Stress
research to better the lives of children and adolescents
Child Study Movement
development of an individual reenacts the evolution of human species
upheaval and disorder is a normal part of adolescent development
Storm and Stress
age range of adolescence in the 1900s
age range of adolescence in the 2000s
First signs of purberty begin when?
about 2 years prior to menarche
period when young people become more independent from parents and explore various life possibilities before making enduring commitments
Emerging Adulthood age range
roughly ages 18-25
5 qualities of emerging adulthood
What makes the explorations of emerging adulthood possible in industrialized countries like America?
adult responsibilities (marriage, career) are put off until the late 20s
Transition into adulthood in America is characterized by __.
Transition into adulthood in Israel is characterized by __.
completing military service
Transition into adulthood in Argentina is characterized by __.
being able to support a family financially
Transition into adulthood in South Korea is characterized by __.
being able to support your parents financially
In traditional cultures, __ marks the transition into adulthood.
importance of learning to stand alone as a self-sufficient person without relying on anyone else
importance for persons to mute their individual desires in order to contribute to the well-being of the group
web of commitments, attachments, and obligations that exist in some human groups
research method involving participant observation
example of ethnography
Harvard Adolescence Project
research method involving the measuring of biological factors
example of biological measurement
Tanner - timing of puberty
research method involving treatment and control groups
example of experimental research
testing anti-smoking interventions
research method involving a naturally occurring situation
example of a naturalistic research method
Correlation vs Causation
correlation: predictable relationship between to variables
just because to thing are correlated, doesn't mean one causes the other
Bronfenbrenner's 5 systems
setting where people experience their daily lives
network of interconnections between microsystems
societal institutions that have an indirect but potentially important influence on development
broad system of cultural beliefs and values, and the economic and governmental systems that are built on those beliefs and values
changes that occur in developmental circumstances over time
Importance of Bronfenbrenner's theory
cultural beliefs and values are the basis for other conditions of child development
historical changes as influence on development
children and adolescents are active participants in their develoment
serious problems in Sub-Saharan Africa
chronic poverty, war, and HIV/AIDS
Africa has been described as __.
a rich continent whose people are poor
3 ways the AIDS epidemic affects young people in Africa
parents death = deeper poverty
young africans become infected
must assume leader ship of family
In Northern Africa and the Middle East, ___ is the predominant influence on all aspects of cultural life.
the Muslim religion
3 key issues that face the young people of NA and the Middle East
strenth of Islam
patriarchal family relationships (must obey father unquestioningly)
position of women (tight control over appearance and behavior)
4 main issues facing young people in India
school vs work (no compulsory edu, many are illiterate)
tradition of early arranged marriages
caste system (status in society)
rights of women (inferior status)
4 major issues affecting young people in Asia
tradition of filial piety (respect, obey and revere parents)
arranged marriages and dating
intense pressure at the secondary school level
rights of women (fewer rights and opportunities than males)
2 key issues for young people in Latin America
political stability (instability in the past like military coups and dictatorships)
economic growth (not very prosperous, high unemployment)
4 principle issues for young people in the West
education (uneven opportunities across ethnic groups; more college grads than needed in economy)
immigrants (anti-immigrant acts by young working men)
increasing worldwide technological and economic integration
effects of globalization
connects different parts of the world at increased rates
makes cultures more similar to one another
bicultural indentities becoming more common
having an identity that includes aspects of two different cultures
The Urban-Rural Split: Urban pros
greater access to education and health care
The Urban-Rural Split: Urban cons
more likely to be subjected to exploitation by adults in prostitution and industrial labor
The Urban-Rural Split: Rural cons
less likely to attend school
The Urban-Rural Split: Rural pros
more likely to have the support and care of a stable extended family
Adolescence emerged in its modern form circa ____.
Why is it difficult to predict the future for young people?
each generation takes the material for life provided by their culture and reshapes it in unique ways
Puberty is derived from the Latin word ___ which means ___.
pubescere; "to grow hairy"
changes in anatomy, physiology, and physical appearance of the body that people undergo to become an adult and prepare for sexual reproduction
Hormonal changes during puberty begin in ___.
the endocrine system
To begin puberty, the hypothalamus gradually increases the production of __.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What causes the hypothalamus to release GnRH?
it occurs once a threshold level of body fat is reached
Fat cells produce __.
What does leptin do?
provides a signal to the hypothalamus
The increase in GnRH during puberty affects the __.
What does GnRH do?
causes the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins
What are the 2 gonadotropins?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
What do gonadotropins do?
stimulate the development of gametes
influence production of sex hormones
2 classes of sex hormones
estrogens and androgens
most important estrogen
most important androgen
When puberty begins, females produce more __ than males.
estradiol (8x more)
When puberty begins, males produce more __ than females.
testosterone (20x more)
__ monitors the levels of androgens and estrogens in the bloodstream.
__ responds to the reduction in GnRH by reducing production of FSH, LH, and ACTH.
__ responds to lower levels of FSH and LH by reducing the amount of sex hormones produced.
when the sex hormones reach an optimal level
When does the hypothalamus reduce production of GnRH?
when the set point is reached
Girls typically reach their growth spurt and peak height velocity about __ earlier than boys.
__ are the first part of the body to hit the growth spurt.
uneven growth of different parts of the body during puberty
During puberty, body fat increases more for __ than for __.
During puberty, muscle mass increases more for __ than for __.
Cardiac output peaks at age __.
Reaction speed and grip strength (in males) is highest during __.
Factors that undermine health for emerging adulthood
lack of sleep
LEADING cause of death among emerging adults in the US
COMMON cause of death among emerging adults in the US
Rates of contracting STDs are highest during __.
early 20s (emerging adulthood)
primary sex characteristics in boys
primary sex characteristics in girls
secondary sex characteristics in boys
sweat glands increase production
secondary sex characteristics in girls
sweat glands increase production
Women are born with ___ immature eggs in each ovary; drops to __ by puberty.
Females release about __ eggs over the course of their reproductive lives.
Men are born with __ sperm in their testes.
0 - don't produce till puberty
The average age that sperm production begins is about __.
12 years old
There are __ sperm in the typical male ejaculation.
Researcher of pubertal development in Kikuyu culture of Kenya
Researcher of pubertal development of African American girls
Researcher of pubertal development of Chinese girls
Lee, Chang, and Chan
In the Kikuyu culture in Kenya, __ show the first physical changes in puberty.
boys (reversal of western pattern)
Many black girls were found to begin developing __ and __ earlier than white girls.
breast buds and pubic hair
In the study of Chinese girls, __ began to develop 2 years AFTER the development of breast buds and a few months before menarche.
In western studies of puberty in girls, __ and __ developed together about 2 years before menarche.
pubic hair and breast buds
secular trend for menarche occurring in every western country
downward in age
(menarche starting younger)
1 reason puberty begins sooner and sooner?
advances in food production --> enhanced nutrition
What percent of cultures have puberty rituals for boys?
What percent of cultures have puberty rituals for girls?
__ is the pubertal event that is most often marked by ritual.
__ has been credited with the decline of puberty rituals.
How do parent-adolescent relations change at puberty?
less comfortable in each other's presence
Parent-child communication styles shift toward __ and away from __ when puberty is reached.
a males first ejaculation
Semenarche is not often studied due to __.
connotation with masturbation and negative view in society
The effects of early maturation are __ for girls.
How does late maturation affect girls?
not much - some teasing and negative body image
more likely to have favorable lean body image of western cultures
The effects of early maturation tend to be __ for boys.
3 forms of genotype-environment interactions
Passive genotype-environment interactions
when parents provide both genes and environment
Evocative genotype-environment interactions
person's inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in their environment
Active genotype-environment interactions
people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics
Why use adoption studies?
avoids problem of passive genotype-environment effects: one set of parents provides genes and a different set provides environment
__ is a time of peak physical functioning for most people.
How do cultures influence the experience of puberty?
nutrition/medical care -->pubertal timing
The first evident changes of puberty take place between ages __.
According to Piaget, changes in cognitive development proceed in __.
(Piaget) Each person's cognitive abilities is organized into one coherent __.
Piaget's approach is known as the __.
(Piaget) The driving force behind development from one stage to the next is __.
Why does Piaget say that maturation is an active process?
Because children seek out information that matches the maturity of their thinking (contrasts with behaviorism)
Piaget proposed that the active construction of reality takes place through the use of __.
2 processes involved in the use of Piagetian schemes
assimilation and accomodation
occurs when new info is altered to fit an existing scheme
occurs the the scheme is changed to adapt to new info
Piagetian stages of cognitive development
age range of sensorimotor stage
piagetian stage in which cognitive development involves learning how to coordinate activities of the senses with motor activities
age range of preoperational stage
piagetian stage in which the world is represented symbolically
age range of concrete operations stage
piagetian stage in which child becomes more adept a using mental opertations which leads to a more advanced understanding of the world
age range of formal operations stage
piagetian stage which allows adolescents to reason about more complex tasks ans problems involving multiple variables
stage most relevant to cognitive development in adolescence
In the formal operations stage, the capacity for __ and __ is developed.
abstract thinking and complex thinking
thinking in terms of symbols, ideas, and concepts
thinking that takes into account multiple connections and interpretations; perceive multiple aspects
thinking about thinking
Which of piaget's stages has been the most critiqued and modified over time?
2 categories of limitations of piaget's theory of formal operations
individual differences in the attainment of formal operations (not often used; concrete ops more sufficient)
cultural basis of adolescent cognitive development (kinds of cognition requirements vary across culture)Pi
Piaget's research has inspired theories of cognitive development beyond formal operations known as __.
2 most notable aspects of postformal thinking in emerging adulthood
pragmatism and reflective judgement
type of thinking that involves adapting logical thinking to the practical contraints of real-life situations
Cognitive development in the early 20s is distinguished from adolescent development by a greater recognition and incorporations of __.
practical limitations to logical thinking
type of thinking involving realizing that problems don't have one simple solution--several solutions may have merit
the capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments
investigated reflection in adolescence and emerging adulthood which included: dualistic thinking, multiple thinking, relativism, commitment
__ is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reflective thinking.
see situations and issues in polarized, absolute, black-and-white terms
recognition that there is more than one legitimate view of things and it can be difficult to justify one position as true and accurate
ability to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view but also compare the relative merits of each point of view
cognitive status in which person chooses one point of view they believe to be correct, but is open to reevaluating their view
Information-Processing approach views cognitive change as __.
continuous (gradual and steady)
approach which focuses on the thinking processes that exist at all ages
The original model for the information-processing approach
the computer (analogy used to break down human thinking into capacities of attention, processing, and memory)
memory that holds info for about 30 seconds; limited capacity
Short-Term Memory (STM)
memory that holds info indefinitely; unlimited capacity
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Adolescents are __ than children at processing info.
faster (speed increase from age 10 to late teens)
how much cognitive effort a person needs to devote to processing info
Adolescents show __ automaticity of processing than children.
Automaticity depends more on __.
experience than age alone
Limitations of the information-processing approach
holistic perspective (lost by scholars)
computer analogy (inadeaquate)
breaking up a phenomenon into separate parts so much that the meaning of the whole is lost
term used to describe the way we think about other people, social relationships, and social institutions
2 aspects of social cognition
perspective taking (Selman)
adolescent egocentrism (Elkind)
the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others
Selman's theory of perspective taking is based on a __.
perspective taking in adolescence develops from __ during childhood.
In early adolescence, children become capable of __ perspective taking.
just as you understand that another person has a perspective different than yours, you realize that other people understand that you have a different perspective than theirs
mutual perspective taking
In late adolescence, children become capable of __ perspective taking.
social and conventional
adolescents come to realize that their social perspectives are influenced by interaction with each other AND their roles in the larger society
social and conventional perspective taking
the ability to attribute mental states to one's self and others, including beliefs, thoughts, and feelings
theory of mind
involves difficulty of adolescents to distinguish their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about someone else's thoughts
results from adolescents' limited capacity to distinguish their thinking about themselves and their thinking about what others are thinking about them
belief that others are acutely aware of and attentive to one's appearance and behavior
The __ is built on the imaginary audience.
the belief that there must be something special or unique about you; stems from the belief that people are constantly attentive to your appearance and behavior
concept related to personal fable
the tendency to assume that accidents, diseases, and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves
Adolescents tend to have a __ optimistic bias than adults.
attempting to understand human cognition by evaluating cognitive ability with intelligence tests
developed first intelligence test
made important revisions to the original intelligence test
revised IQ test is now known as __.
__ performance on IQ tests is very stable.
__ performance on IQ tests is not very stable.
mental abilities that involve speed of analyzing, processing, and reacting to info
accumulated knowledge and enhanced judgment based on experience
Performance subtests on IQ tests assess abilities of __ intelligence.
Comprehension and vocabulary subtests of IQ tests asses abilities of __ intelligence.
kind of intelligence that peaks in emerging adulthood
kind of intelligence that improves through the 20s and 30s
By age __, the brain is 95% of adult size.
2 timeframes that thickening of synaptic connections occur
beginning of puberty (10-12)
The increase/thickening of synaptic connections in the brain is known as __.
theory that says cognitive development is inherently both a social and cultural process
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky's most influential ideas
zone of proximal development
the gap between what adolescents can accomplish alone and what they are capable of doing if guided by an adult or more competent peer
zone of proximal development
the degree of assistance provided to the adolescent in the zone of proximal development
the teaching interaction between 2 people as they participate in a culturally valued activity
2 aspects of __ are critical thinking and decision making.
The new field of social psychology emphasizes the __ context of cognition.