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24 rocks, 18 minerals

Mineral- Graphite

Native Element
Color: Black/Silver
Streak: Silver/Grey
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 1-3
Commonly used in pencils

Mineral- Pyrite

Sulfide
Color: Gold
Streak: Grey
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 6.5-10

Mineral- Magnetite

Oxide
Color: Black
Streak: Black
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 6.5-10
Magnetic

Mineral- Plagioclase Feldspar

Silicate
Color: Grey/White
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10

Mineral- Potassium Feldspar

Silicate
Color: Orange/Tan/Peach
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10

Mineral- Biotite Mica

Silicate
Color: Black
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (dark)
Hardness: 1-3
Cleavage

Mineral- Muscovite Mica

Silicate
Color: Translucent
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 1-3
Cleavage

Mineral- Talc

Silicate
Color: White
Streak: White
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 1-3
Characteristics: Greasy/Soapy feel

Mineral- Quartz

Silicate
Color: White/Translucent/Light Pink
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 6.5-10

Mineral- Calcite

Carbonate
Color: White/Translucent
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 3-6.5
Reacts with Hydrochloric Acid

Mineral- Hornblende (Amphiboles)

Silicate
Color: Black
Streak: Black
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 6.5-10

Mineral- Hematite

Oxide
Color: Black
Streak: Brown
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 3-6.5

Mineral- Galena

Sulfide
Color: Silver (very shiny)
Streak: Grey
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 3-6.5

Mineral- Florite

Halide
Color: Purple, Green
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 3-6.5

Mineral- Sulfur

Native Element
Color: Yellow
Streak: Yellow
Luster: None
Hardness: 1-3

Mineral- Olivine

Silicate
Color: Dark Green/Yellow (olive)
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10

Mineral- Garnet

Silicate
Color: Brown
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10

Rock- Obsidian

Igneous Rock
Color: Black
Super Extrusive
Super fast cooling (lava)
Characteristics: Very shiny black surface, smooth

Rock- Lithographic Limestone

Sedimentary Rock
Color: Tan
Non-Clastic, Chemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)

Rock- Coquina Limestone

Sedimentary Rock
Color: Shells
Non-Clastic, Biochemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)
Characteristics: Obvious pieces of shell and other things

Rock- Fossiliferous Limestone

Sedimentary Rock
Color: Grey
Non-Clastic, Biochemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)

Rock- Chalk (Limestone)

Sedimentary Rock
Color: White
Non-Clastic, Biochemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)
Characteristics: Can write on slate, common blackboard chalk

Rock- Slate

Metamorphic Rock
Color: Black/Grey
Foliated
Formed from: Shale/Siltstone --> Slate
Characteristics: Can use chalk to write on it, commonly used for blackboards/chalkboards

Rock- Shale

Igneous Rock
Color: Grey/Black
Clastic
Formed in: Quiet deep ocean, Lake bottom
Characteristics: Can see fossils

Rock- Granite

Igneous Rock
Color: Pink/Grey
Intrusive
Granitic
Formed in: Continents
Characteristics: Commonly used in kitchen counters, pinkish in color

Rock- Halite (Rock Salt)

Sedimentary Rock
Color: Translucent
Non-Clastic, Chemical
Formed in: Inland sea dried up (by evaporation)
Characteristics: Tastes salty, looks like a crystal

Rock- Sandstone

Sedimentary Rock
Color: Reddish/Orange
Clastic
Formed in: Coastline, Stream/Lake edge, Desert
Characteristics: Sandy look/feel, has a distinctive reddish color

Rock- Conglomerate Sandstone

Sedimentary Rock
Color: Tan
Clastic
Formed in: Fast-moving stream, Active coastline
Characteristics: Has bits of shell in it

Rock- Gabbro

Igneous Rock
Color: Mostly Black/Grey
Intrusive
Basaltic
Formed in: Oceans/Islands
Characteristics: Is mostly black with small spots of grey

Rock- Anthracite Coal

Metamorphic Rock
Color: Black
Non-Foliated
Formed in: Swamps (from organic coal)
Characteristics: Shiny (not as shiny as obsidian) black surface

Rock- Peridotite

Igneous Rock
Color: Black/Grey
Intrusive
Ultramafic
Formed in: Mantle

Rock- Gneiss

Metamorphic
Color: Grey/White
Foliated
Formed from: Schist/Granite --> intense T or P
or, Mt. building
CharacteristicsL: Obvious foliation

Rock- Rhyolite

Igneous
Color: Light Tan
Extrusive
Granitic
Formed in: Continents
Characteristics: One of the lightest rocks

Rock- Diorite

Igneous
Color: Black & White
Intrusive
Andesitic
Formed in: Coastal areas
Characteristics: Black and White polka-dotted

Rock- Andesite

Igneous Rocks
Color: Grey
Extrusive
Andesitic
Formed in: Coastal areas
Characteristics: Mostly grey, darker in color

Rock- Basalt

Igneous Rock
Color: Grey
Extrusive
Basaltic
Formed in: Oceans/Islands
Characteristics: Constant dark grey color throughout

Rock- Pumice

Igneous Rock
Color: Light grey
Extrusive
Formed in: when lava forms air bubbles as gases escape
Characteristics: Very lightweight, lots of air holes, less dense than water

Rock- Mica Schist

Metamorphic Rock
Color: Shiny Black/Silver
Foliated
Formed from: Shale/Siltstone/Slate --> Schist with an increase in T or P (burial)
Characteristics: Shiny silver, but not as shiny/doesn't have as many big crystals as Mica Garnet Schist

Rock- Mica Garnet Schist

Metamorphic Rock
Color: Shiny Black/Silver
Foliated
Formed from: Shale/Siltstone/Slate --> Schist with an increase in T or P (burial)
Characteristics: Shiny silver, shinier/has bigger crystals than Mica Garnet Schist

Rock- Marble

Metamorphic Rock
Color: White
Non-Foliated
Formed from: Limestone (ocean) --> Marble
Characteristics: Reacts to Hydrochloric Acid (has calcite in composition)

Rock- Quartzite

Metamorphic Rock
Color: White/Light grey
Non-Foliated
Formed from: Sandstone (coastline, stream/lake edge, desert) --> Quartzite

Silicate

Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure called the silicon-oxygen tentrahedron
Will have "SiO2" in composition

Carbonate

Minerals that contain the elements carbon (C), oxygen (O) and one or more other metallic element (Al, Fe, Pb, Mg or Ti)

Oxide

Minerals that contain oxygen (O) and one or more other elements (usually metals: Al, Fe, Pb, Mg or Ti)

Sulfate/Sulfide

Minerals that contain the element sulfur
Will have "S" in the composition

Halide

Minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements
Will usually have "F" (flourine) or "Cl" (chlorine) in the compostion

Native Elements

Minerals that only contain one element or type of atom

The 5 Characteristics of a Mineral

1. Naturally occurring
2. Solid substance
3. Orderly crystalline substance
4. Definite chemical composition
5. Generally considered inorganic

Rocks vs. Minerals (How are they different?)

Rocks do not have a crystalline structure
Minerals get jumbled up in a rock
Some rocks are not even made of minerals

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