A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
(A person with a 'high level' of this holds positive feelings about his/her job. A person with 'low level' holds negative feelings.)
evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events. (They reflect how people 'feel' about something. When someone says "I like my job," they're expressing 'this' about work.)
An intention to act in a certain way toward someone or something. ("I am looking for a new job that pays better.")
A descriptive belief in the way things are. ( "My pay is low")
The 'emotional or 'feeling segment of an attitude and is reflected in the statement. ("I am angry over how little I am paid.")
3 Main Components of Attitudes (CAB)
Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral. (C.A.B.)
5 Factor Model (Ocean with an 'E')
O- Openness to experience, C- Conscientiousness (reliable, responsible, organized. E- Extraversion (Comfort level with relations and being social. A- Agreeableness (A persons tendency to defer to others.) N(E)- Emotional Stability- A persons ability to withstand stress.
TRAIT theory that attempts to explain personality using 5 broad dimensions....each which is composed of a constellation of personality traits.
Machiavellianism (Movie 21)
The degree to which an individual is pragmatic(views practical considerations), maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends justify the means.
The process that involves an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
3 Facets of Motivation (D.I.P. "Dip")
Direction, Intensity, Persistence.
Two-Factor Theory/ Hygiene Theory (Herzberg's)
Herzberg's motivation theory, which proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. A.k.a. motivation-hygiene theory.
1. Intrinsic- Advance, recognition, achievement.
2. Extrinsic- Supervision, pay, working conditions.
An arrangement that allows 2 or more individuals to split a traditional 40 hour a week job.
Variable/Compensation Pay Plan
Pay plans administered to enhance employee motivation.
1. Piece rate pay- paying a fixed sum for each unit of production.
2. Merit based pay- pays individuals for performance.
3. Bonus- Annual bonuses for sticking with the job.
4. Skill based pay.
5. Gainsharing- pay based on incentives for the work 'groups' have done together.
Job Characteristics Model (F.I.S.S.A.)
a model that proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions:
1. feedback- Carrying out your work generates clear information about yourself.
2. Task Identity- degree to which the job requires of a 'whole 'identifiable piece.
3. Skill Variety- When the job requires a variety of different skills.
4. task Significance- degree to which the job has an impact on 'lives of other 'people.
5. Autonomy- Degree to which the job provides worker freedom, and independence.
Assumption employees dislike work, are lazy, must dislike responsibility, and must be coerced.
Assumption employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and view work as being natural or play.
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)
a company established benefit plan where employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.
A system where workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group. (Work councils, board representatives.)
A participation process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee commitment to an organization's success.
the idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions and respond to eliminate inequities. ( Equation My Output= Your Output. My Input = Your Input. "Job Fairness".
Self Efficacy Theory (Albert Bandura)
Managers help increase employees motivation by giving them a task that they 'can complete. "If you believe you can do it, you can do it."
Self Efficacy Theory.
4 Ways Self Efficacy can be increased
1. Enactive Mastery
2. Vicarious Modeling.
3. Verbal Persuasion
Any incompatibility an individuals perceives between 2 or more attitudes between behavior and attitudes. (Arguing you only like Foreign cars, until someone buys you a U.S. car and you realize they aren't so bad.)
Reducing Cognitive Dissonance
1. Depends on moderating factors like 'importance of what's creating it, and the 'influence that we have over them.
2. Individuals will be more motivated to reduce dissonance once they realize the dissonance is due to something they can control.
3. 'Rewards' of the dissonance factors.
When people's emotions, are caused by the emotions of others. "catching of emotions from others".
Anything that makes a person, object, or an event stand out and will increase the probability of us seeing it. (Noticing same cars, a boss noticing someone.)
Maslow's Hierarchy (P.-S-S-E-S.)
1. Self Actualization- drive to become what we are capable of becoming.
2. Esteem- Internal factors - self respect, achievement. External - Status, Attention.
3. Social- Friendship, Belonging, Affection.
4. Safety (1st)- Security and protection from harms.
5. Physiological- hunger, thirst, shelter, sex.
Goal Setting Theory
a theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. (Where, and how high to set the bar.)
Self Determination Theory
- People prefer to feel that they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previous enjoyed task into an obligation, decreases the motivation for it. (Pet $11 hour example.)
A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation.
Perceived fairness of 'outcome'. (I got the pay that i deserved.)
perceived fairness of process used to determine the outcome. (I had input into the process used to give raises and was given a good explanation why I got the raise I did.)
perceived degree to where one is treated with dignity and respect. (When getting told about the raise, the supervisor was nice, and complementary.
Management By Objectives (M.B.O.)
emphasizes that participative set goals are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. (Robot Chart). 4 Ingredients:
1. goal specificity
2. participation in decision making
3. explicit time period
Pygmalion Effect (Galatea Effect)
A self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something, can make it true. (Sailors told that they won't get sea sick, were less likely to do so.)
An evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered from 'high or 'low of the same characteristic.
Judging someone or evaluating them based on 1 characteristic. (Intelligence wise, 'warm' vs. 'cold'.)
A gut feeling, not really supported by research.
Emotional Intelligence (E.I.)
the ability to be self-aware of one's own emotions, detect emotions of others, and manage emotional cues and information. (Knowing one is angry, but being able to express themselves without violating norms.)
Settling for less than the optimal solution in order to reach a satisfactory solution as quickly and cheaply as possible. In
theory, consumers would select the optimal product or service to meet their needs.
Rational Decision making
A 6 step model that describes how humans should behave in order to reach maximum possible outcome.
1. Define the problem.
2. Identify the problem.
3. Develop alternatives.
4. Evaluate alternatives.
5. Select best alternative.
Process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing every detail.
(Since the mind isn't complex enough to make complex decisions, we break them down without all essentials of every detail in order to make the decision.)
jobs in which employees are expected to display certain "feelings" in order to satisfy organizational role expectations. (Airline attendant to be cheerful, nice. Funeral director to be mournful and sad.)
Individuals actual 'feelings'/emotions.
Emotions the organization requires the employee to show. (These aren't innate, they're learned.) Also, how we are supposed to act sad at a funeral whether we felt the death was a loss to us or not.
Peoples tendency to attribute their own 'success' on 'internal' factors, while blaming their 'failures' on 'external' factors.
The tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not.
Fundamental attribution error
Making judgements about behavior of someone underestimating external factors and overestimating the influence on internal ones. (Sales manager judging low sales as laziness, rather than a competitors innovative product.)
Intrinsic/ Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic- Comments, pat on the back, formalized.
Extrinsic- Compensation programs.
The tendency for people to base their judgements on 'information that is readily 'available to them.
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
The tendency to prefer a sure thing over a risky outcome. (50-50 coin gamble).
Judging someone's behavior on if their behavior was caused by internal(personal), or external(forced) factors.
Values - Instrumental - Terminal
1. A specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite converse mode.
2. Desirable end-states. (Goals a person wants to have achieved in their lifetime. World peace, health-well being, social recognition.
3. Preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. ( Ambition, personal discipline, self-improvement, autonomy.)
A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors.
Haufsted Cultural dimensions
power distance (perceived differences in power), uncertainty avoidance (degree of threatenedness bu ambiguous situations) masculine vs felinity (delineation of sex roles) individualism vs collectivism (extent culture values individual vs group welfare) .
Type A personality
Aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more, and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against opposing efforts, things, or people.
Type B personality
Rarely harried to achieve things, participate in endless events, never suffer from time or urgency or feel guilt from being relaxed.