Holt Modern Biology Ch. 17 Review

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Phylum (animals) / Division (plants)

3

Who is the father of modern taxonomy (classification of organisms)?

Carl Linnaeus

Hominidae (family)

Great Apes

Aristotle classified animals on the basis of

where they lived.

The main criterion used in Linnaeus's system of classification is an organism's

morphology.

Each subset within a class of organisms is call an

order.

In the scientific name of an organism, the first part is the

genus.

How were the classification systems of Aristotle and Linnaeus similar?

Both considered where the species lived and categorized plants and animals.

How does the classification process used by modern taxonomists differ from that used by Linnaeus?

Modern - considers evolutionary history; Linnaeus - considers mainly morphology

Why is Aristotle's system of classifying animals no longer in use by biologists?

It did not adequately cover all organisms, and Aristotle's use of common names was problamatic.

Taxonomy

the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms

Systematics

analyzes the diversity of organisms in the context of their natural relationships

What do scientists consider when classifying organisms?

Fossils, homologous features, embryos, chromosomes, the sequences of proteins and DNA

Phylogenetic diagram

displays how closely related a subset of taxa are thought to be

Cladistics

uses shared, derived characters as the only criterion for grouping taxa

Three domains

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

Domain Bacteria aligns with...?

Kingdom Eubacteria - consists of single celled prokaryotes (true bacteria)

Domain Archaea aligns with...?

Kingdom Archaebacteria - consists of single celled prokaryotes with cell membranes and walls

Domain Eukarya includes the kingdoms...?

Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

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