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Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.

variable-ratio

Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves

cognitive processes.

After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear.

unconditioned stimulus

Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with

novel tastes.

According to the text, learning involves

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?

respondent behavior

B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's

personal freedom.

The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates

partial reinforcement.

The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.

reinforcement; punishment

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of

observational learning.

Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for

observational learning.

The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called

discrimination.

Rates of operant responding are ________ for fixed-ratio than for fixed-interval schedules; they are ________ for variable-ratio than for variable-interval schedules.

higher; higher

Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of

operant conditioning.

Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting

prosocial behavior.

An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of

successive approximations.

A child who is punished for swearing at home but not for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of

discrimination.

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because

so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.

Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.

mirror neurons

Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of

cognitive processes.

An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)

reinforcer.

Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good answers to his questions, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of

shaping.

Alex learned how to make 3-point basketball shots by successfully making very short shots before shooting from increasingly longer distances from the hoop. This learning strategy best illustrates the process of
Answer

shaping.

The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of

latent learning.

In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable when their photos were framed in

red.

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates

the law of effect.

In explaining juvenile delinquency, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized

faulty child-rearing practices.

Alex was paid $100 for eight hours of work. The money was a(n)

conditioned reinforcer.

Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a

CR.

The taste of food and relief from a headache are both ________ reinforcers.

primary

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called

acquisition.

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

observational learning.

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to

modeling.

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because

so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.

A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to

operant conditioning.

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of

instinctive drift.

Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will

continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.

Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is the withdrawal of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior.

aversive; pleasant

For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of

reinforcement over punishment.

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
Answer

external influences.

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