Chapter 25: The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920

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content: based on the bolded words in chapter 25 of the AP edition of Peter Sterns' "World Civilizations: Fifth Edition" format: based on Mr. Murphy's style of notecards, including term and page number on one side of the card and definition, significance, and analysis of significance bulletted on the other

Toussaint L'Overture

Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.

Father Miguel de Hidalgo

Mexican priest who established independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.

Gran Colombia

Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.

Augustín de Iturbide

Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.

Dom Pedro I

Son and successor of Dom João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil.

Andrés Santa Cruz

Mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.

caudillos

Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.

Monroe Doctrine

American declaration stated in 1823; established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act by the United States; supported by Great Britain as a means of opening Latin American trade

Fazendas

Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.

Mexican-American War

Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one-half of Mexico's national territory to the United States.

Maximilian von Habsburg

Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867.

Juan Manuel de Rosas,

Strongman leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.

Spanish American War

War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.

Dependency Theory

Belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but part of the same process; that development and growth of some areas such as Western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions such as Latin America.

Benito Juarez

Indian governor of state of Oaxcaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.

José de San Martin

Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.

Dr. José Rodríguez de Francia

Ruler of independent Paraguay; ruled country as dictator until 1840.

Manifest Destiny

Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.

Centralists

Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.

Guano

Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery

General Antonio López de Santa Anna

Seized power in Mexico after collapse of empire of Mexico in 1824; after brief reign of liberals, seized power in 1835 as caudillo; defeated by Texans in war for independence in 1836; defeated by United States in Mexican-American War in 1848; unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854.

Gauchos

Bands of mounted rural workers in the region of the Rio de la Plata; aided local caudillos in splitting apart the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata after 1816.

La Reforma

The name given to the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of Santa Anna.

Cientificos

Advisors of government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.

Domingo F. Sarmiento

Liberal politician and president of Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade, launched internal reforms in education and transportation.

Mask of Ferdinand

Term given to movements in Latin America allegedly loyal to the displaced Bourbon king of Spain, Ferdinand VII; actually Creole movements for independence.

Simon Bolívar

Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia.

Dom João VI

Portuguese monarch who established seat of government in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 as a result of Napoleonic invasion of Iberian peninsula; made Brazil seat of empire with capital at Rio de Janeiro.

Federalists

Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals.

Positivism

French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to problems of society; adopted by many Latin American liberals in the aftermath of independence.

Panama Canal

An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War; provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States; left legacy of distrust of the United States in Latin America.

Porfirio Díaz

One of Juárez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government.

Argentine Republic

Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862; result of compromise between centralists and federalists.

Modernization Theory

The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed; used as a blueprint for.

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