generation to generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population that accounts for all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time. The changes that have occurred in a species over a long period of time.
process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals.
known as the father of evolution, he wrote the book The Origin of Species which shared his theory of natural selection.
Chain of islands near South America where Darwin developed his theory of natural selection by studying the unique life there.
distinct form of life
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
similar structure found in more than one species that share a common ancestor.
process in which unrelated species from similar environments have adaptations that seem very similar.
evidence in DNA that shows evolution has occurred. Like the similarity in DNA between Chimpanzees and humans.
preserved remains or marking left by an organism that lived I the past.
Development of Embryos
vertebrates all have an embryonic stage where pouches appear on the sides of the embryo's throat. In the early stages of embryonic development, most embryos look similar, but as they progress in development differences begin to appear more apparent.
Pesticides Resistance in Insects
Insects that have a resistance to pesticides live and pass on the trait to their offspring making a race of pesticide resistance insects.
all of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population.
A measure of the occurrence of an allele in a population.
exchange of genes between populations.
selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring with desired genetic traits.
Survival of the Fittest
the plants or animals with the best-suited traits for their environment will survive and reproduce to pass on their traits to their young.
evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments.
evolutionary model suggesting species often diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change, followed by long periods of little change.
condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding such as different parts or mating rituals.
isolation between species caused by different behavioral patterns such as calls, signals, body language, and different rituals.
separation of populations as a result of geographic change or migration to geographically isolated places.
change in the gene pool of a population due to chance.
Descent with Modification
process by which descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life.
created the system of classification commonly used today. It consists of a two-part Latin name for a species along with Latin names for other orders like order.
two-part Latin name for a species. First part in Genus, the second part is the species.
The specific name given to a species based on Carolus Linnaeus' binomial nomenclature system.
broadest category used to classify life forms.
highest classification of organisms in the taxonomic level.
a set of species from a common ancestral species. Each evolutionary branch in a phylogenetic tree. A leopard and a house cat form a clade.
Levels of Classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, a plant, or a fungus.
animal-like protest; is a heterotroph.
plant-like protest; makes its own food by photosynthesis.
Plasmodial slime molds are brightly colored, branching growths that could be seen on a decaying log. Cellular slime molds are decomposers that live mainly on decaying organic matter. They go through unicellular and multicellular stages of life where they go from an individual, to a colony, to a spore.
cells lacking a nucleus and most other organelles.
cell with a nucleus and other internal organelles.
temporary extension of a cell's cytoplasm and plasma membrane; used by certain protozoans in movement and feeding.
long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules that enable some cells to move.
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface.
organism that obtains food by eating producers or other consumers.
organism that makes its own food by performing photosynthesis, they are the basis of all food chains and food webs.
organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms.
membrane-bound sac that buds from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus.
A vacuole found in some freshwater organism that pumps out excess water that diffuses into the cellular membrane.
chemical compound that determines a substance's color.
any form of movement be it through a flagella, cilia, or pseudopod.
cellular process of making ATP without oxygen.
form of asexual reproduction in some unicellular organism like yeast where a new organism is formed from the bud. This type of reproduction can also be seen in plants and organisms such as jellyfish and sponges.
method by which fungi absorb small organic molecules from their surroundings.
a thread of cytoplasm; many of these together make up the body of a fungus.
interwoven mat of hyphae that function s as the feeding structure of a fungus.
haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stage in fungal reproduction.
reproductive structures on a plasmodial slime mold; also called fruiting bodies. They are also spore-forming structures at the tips of fungal hyphae or in ferns.
symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots.
mutualistic pairing of a fungus and an alga.
Reproductive structure of fungus
spores, sporangia, zygosporangium
medicine that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.
Importance of each group of microbes
Fungi are the decomposers of the environment and they return nutrients back to the environment so they can be reused. Protists can be phytoplankton which are the basis of many oceanic food chains. Some fungi can be used in medicine and some protists can be used to created medicine/antibiotics.
package of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat that must use a host cell's machinery to reproduce itself.
DNA and a protein coat.
a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cell's DNA.
a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses.
dose of a disabled or destroyed pathogen used to stimulate a long-term immune defense against the pathogen. A weakened form of the virus is given to the person so their immune system can build up immunity to the virus.
HIV, influenza, polio, smallpox, chickenpox, common cold, mumps, measles.
Beneficial Uses of Prokaryotes
making food (bread), cleaning up the environment, medications, bodily functions of almost all organisms.
Method for identifying bacteria. Bacteria are washed with a violet dye that stains the bacteria. The violet dye is then washed off and pink dye is added. If the bacteria are purple, then they are Gram+ because they have a thick cell wall and retain the purple dye. If the bacteria are pink, they are Gram- because their membranes are thinner. Doctors use this method to prescribe the correct antibiotics to patients.
a flowering plant.
plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary.
include mosses and their relatives that are sometimes described as nonvascular plants because they lack the lignin-hardened vascular tissue found in vascular plants. Don't have true roots; instead they have rhizoids which function in absorbing moisture and attaching the moss to a surface. The gametophyte is dominant generation.
member of a group of seedless vascular plants with lignin-hardened support tissues that includes ferns. Sporophyte is the dominant generation. Male and female structures are located on same gametophyte and the gametophyte forms from a haploid spore produced in the sporangia of the sporophyte generation.
have lignin-hardened vascular tissue that helps in water/nutrient transportation within a plant.
plants that have no vascular tissue to move nutrients and water throughout the plant.
Veins and Central Veins
carry water to parts of the leaf and also transport sugars from the leaf to the stem where the phloem then takes the sugars to the rest of the plant
increases the leaf's surface area allowing for more photosynthesis It is the main part of the leaf.
male reproductive organs in a flower
Function of each part of a Flower
Sepals cover and protect the flower bud before the blossom opens. The petals are often very colorful and function in attracting insects so pollination can occur. A stamen consists of an anther (sac on top of filament that produces spores through meiosis that eventually develop into pollen grains) and a filament (stalk anther is on). The carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower and it consists of the stigma (sticky tip of the style), the style (narrow structure that leads to the ovary), and the ovary (the protective organ inside flowers the bears seeds).
growth response that causes parts of a plant to grow toward a stimulus.
the growth of a plant part toward or away from light.
a change in plant growth due to touch. A pea plant shows thigmotropism when its tendrils curl around wire to grow up in height.
the tendency for an organism to grow towards (or away from) water.
a growth hormone that causes a wide variety of effects. One role is to stimulate growth of stems by promoting cell division. Farmers use it to make fruit grow larger.
plant embryo packaged along with a food supply within a protective coat.
ripened ovary of a flower.
vascular tissue that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots of plants to the shoots.
vascular tissue that transports food from a plant's leaves to its roots and other parts.
structure that generates new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue in a plant.
makes up the epidermis.
transports water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules between roots/shoots. Makes up the xylem and the phloem.
makes up most of young, non-woody plants and aids in photosynthesis in the shoot. The ground tissue of the root is mainly the cortex.
regions between 23.5 degrees N latitude and 23.5 degrees S latitude; warmest temperature zones on Earth.
the regions north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle that receive the smallest amount of direct sunlight year-round.
latitudes between the tropics and polar regions in each hemisphere.
regions of a body of water where light penetrates, enabling photosynthesis.
deep areas of a body of water where light levels are too low to support photosynthesis.
number of organisms in a population that an environment can maintain.
condition that restricts a population's growth, such a space, disease, and food availability.
growth of a population that multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals.
an interaction in which one organism eats another
a close interaction between species in which one of the species lives in or on the other.
relationship I which one organism, the parasite, obtains its food at the expense of another organism, the host.
both organisms benefit from the symbiotic relationship. Ex. is lichen.
relationship in which one organism benefits, while the other organism is neither harmed nor helped significantly.
The movement of carbon and oxygen through the environment. Involves respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition, burning of oxygen, and plants and animals.
The recycling of nitrogen in the environment in which nitrogen goes from a gas, to organic compounds in the soil, to proteins in a plant or nitrates, and then is again released into the atmosphere as a gas.
Movement of water through the environment that involves transpiration, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.
variety of life on Earth.
species moved by humans to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally.
series of changes in the species in a community, often following a disturbance.
number of individuals of a particular species per unit area or volume.
organism that makes its own food.
organism that obtains food by eating other organisms.
pathway of food transfer from one trophic level to another.
pattern of feeding in an ecosystem consisting of interconnected and branching food chains.
group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time.
the curve that appears when graphing populations that undergo exponential growth.
the curve of the data that appears when graphing populations that increase to carrying capacity.
inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
examples are warning coloration, mimicry, and camouflage.
more-or-less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community
process by which a community arises in a virtually lifeless area with no soil.
change following a disturbance that damages an existing community but leaves the soil intact.
consumer that only eats producers.
consumer that only eats other consumers.
feeding level in an ecosystem.
organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms.
wastes and remains of dead organisms.
organic material manufactured by producers.
diagram representing energy loss from one trophic level to the next.
a diagram that depicts the energy flow in an ecosystem. Producers are on the bottom while consumers are on the higher levels of the pyramid.
Pyramid of Numbers
representation of the number of individual organisms in each trophic level of an ecosystem.
process by which plants convert the energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars.
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP.
makes ATP without using oxygen when respiration cannot be performed.
stands for adenosine triphosphate. It is the main energy source that cells use for most of their work.
stands for adenosine diphosphate. It is a lower form of ATP that is involved in the production and storing of energy.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
an anaerobic process whereby enzymes break down glucose into lactic acid and transfer energy to ATP.
energy that is stored due to an object's position or arrangement.
energy of motion.
energy from the sun.
potential to perform work due to the arrangement of atoms within molecules.
transformation of sugar into alcohol and carbonic gas.
a simple sugar that is produced by photosynthesis. It is the main source of energy for the body.
colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that most organisms need to survive.
gas that is a byproduct of respiration. Plants need it to perform photosynthesis.
pigment that gives a chloroplast its green color; uses light energy to split water molecules during photosynthesis.
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. The colors of light that we can visibly see without the aid of technology.
Amount of ATP Produced
The entire amount of ATP in an organism is recycled one time per minute. The total amount of ATP remains fairly constant over time.
growth response that causes the plant to grow away from the tropism
spiral shaped bacteria
the stalk that connects a leaf to a plant stem.
the organism that is eaten or hunted by the predator
the camouflage of a tiger so it can sneak up on its prey
very cold, little precipitation, little life
very humid, lots of precipitation, around equator
hot, dry, less than 20 inches of rain/yr.
land with grasses, no trees
forest populated by cone-bearing evergreen trees; mostly found in northern latitudes
shows profiles of precipitation and temperature for various biomes
fruiting bodies that form from the joining of 2 different hyphae
have spore-producing structures called a basidium which are the large above ground structures that you see
female reproductive organs in a flower
stigma, style, ovary
Parts of a Flower
stigma, style, ovary, sepal, stem, anther, filament
frequency of the dominant allele in the population
percentage of heterozygous individuals
frequency of the dominant allele in the population
percentage of homozygous dominant individuals
percentage of homozygous recessive individuals