In the late 1700s and early 1800s __ and pumps began to replace animals and human muscle power.
__ sprang up in one city after another.
The Industrial Revolution had some positive results. Lives were improved by making __ that were widely available
inequalities of wealth
The Industrial Revolution had some negative results. It led to great __ (factory owners became very rich; factory workers remained poor)
The Industrial Revolution had some negative results. Workers worked long hours in __ circumstances
The Industrial Revolution had some negative results. __ labor was used extensively
1. Children worked up to 12 hours a day.
2. They worked for low wages at dangerous
3. Employers treated them badly.
4. They had no time to attend school.
Briefly describe the working conditions for children in the 1840s.
1. They could pay children less money.
2. Children were beaten if they disobeyed.
3. Because families were desperate and
orphanages wanted $.
4. injured children were easily replaced.
Why did factory and mine owners prefer children over adult laborers?
A __ is a person who wants to change conditions he or she thinks are harmful
Reformers began to protect people from unsafe working conditions. Children were required to attend school at least __ hours a day.
Poor people really needed their jobs. However, layoffs and ___ could happen anytime and horrible poverty and suffering resulted.
A __ is a time when large numbers of workers are fired, often with no warning
Some workers dreamed of going to ___ and others dreamed of more reforms.
free market exchange of goods and labor
Some factory and mine owners did not like the laws protecting the workers. They felt government had no right to interfere in the __.
A __ is an economy in which buyers and sellers decide on prices without interference or control from an outside agency.
buyers have the freedom of choice and will choose the best bargain
In a free market, if there is a freedom to compete, the quality of goods will rise, and the cost of goods will go down because __.
an economy in which buyers and sellers decide on prices without interference or control from an outside agency
What is a free market?
producing their goods efficiently and cheaply
. Factory owners thought they were doing a good thing by keeping wages low and showing little concern for workers' safety. They only cared about___.
__ was a member of Parliament who interviewed workers to find out about their working conditions. He helped to pass laws to improve those conditions.
Before Industrialization, there were serfs. Serfs were replaced by __ who rented their land and were free to move elsewhere if they found a better deal. Some prospered, but most remained poor.
Poor people relied on __ power. They had to produce enough food to survive.
Poor people depended on the __ and hard work.
Every village and town had at least one __ every week or so during the warmer months. Here, villagers could get things they needed or wanted, but might not be able to produce themselves.
In which season did peasants slaughter animals and make items to trade at market when it got warmer
In which season did peasants plow and smooth the fields and plant seeds; they went to market to trade
In which season did peasants work in gardens and fields and trade at market
In this season peasants harvested their crops
Villagers were not allowed to hunt deer or rabbits that ate their crops. Doing so was called __. Only the lord and his family could hunt on the land; the villagers were only renting.
___, the result of poor diet, was common among the laboring poor and opened the door to disease.
Families lived in one-room dwellings that had dirt floors and no running water. An open hole in the room let out smoke from the fire. Beds were sacks of straw.
Describe the peasants' living conditions.
There were no schools or hospitals. The __ was usually the only educated person in the village.
The poor had no say in government or no __ to change their lives in a peaceable way.
__ beliefs promised the poor they would not suffer in the next world because they suffered so much in this one.
How did the Industrial Revolution change peoples' lives?
Over the years, clever people discovered more __ways to do their work.
There were __ not known before, brought overseas from the Americas.
__ were larger now thanks to better feed and breeding practices.
There were many new tools and farming techniques. Stronger __ and seedlings with better root systems were helpful.
New methods __of draft animals made better use of their strength.
__ animals are animals used for pulling loads.
Previously the land was divided into many small plots. By the 17th century, larger and more efficient __ were emerging.
The __ lumped together many small fields and made the cost of producing crops fall. Fewer farm workers were needed.
Thanks to the enclosure movement, bigger harvests and lower costs caused the __ to get more profits. They became wealthy. Many villagers found themselves without work.
1. American colonies
2. to cities
3. or to nearby mines.
Desperate for work, many villagers had to leave the countryside, flocking to __, __, or __
In the mines, __ were dug once the easy-to-mine coal and iron - located at the surface of the ground - were used.
The coal and iron mines were often flooded with water beneath the earth's surface called __ water.
__ improved an existing steam engine. It was
useful for pumping water out of the mines.
Steam engines were used to pull cars and wagons and
___'s steam engine drove a boat.
During and after the Industrial Revolution ___ of all kinds were doing work that had been done by people and animals. It was a new age - the Industrial Age. Modern times had begun.