SS - Unit 6, Ls1-3
|steam-powered engines||In the late 1700s and early 1800s __ and pumps began to replace animals and human muscle power.|
|Factories||__ sprang up in one city after another.|
|cheap goods||The Industrial Revolution had some positive results. Lives were improved by making __ that were widely available|
|inequalities of wealth||The Industrial Revolution had some negative results. It led to great __ (factory owners became very rich; factory workers remained poor)|
|dangerous||The Industrial Revolution had some negative results. Workers worked long hours in __ circumstances|
|child||The Industrial Revolution had some negative results. __ labor was used extensively|
| 1. Children worked up to 12 hours a day. |
2. They worked for low wages at dangerous
3. Employers treated them badly.
4. They had no time to attend school.
|Briefly describe the working conditions for children in the 1840s.|
| 1. They could pay children less money.|
2. Children were beaten if they disobeyed.
3. Because families were desperate and
orphanages wanted $.
4. injured children were easily replaced.
|Why did factory and mine owners prefer children over adult laborers?|
|reformer||A __ is a person who wants to change conditions he or she thinks are harmful|
|two||Reformers began to protect people from unsafe working conditions. Children were required to attend school at least __ hours a day.|
|illness||Poor people really needed their jobs. However, layoffs and ___ could happen anytime and horrible poverty and suffering resulted.|
|layoff||A __ is a time when large numbers of workers are fired, often with no warning|
|America||Some workers dreamed of going to ___ and others dreamed of more reforms.|
|free market exchange of goods and labor||Some factory and mine owners did not like the laws protecting the workers. They felt government had no right to interfere in the __.|
|free market||A __ is an economy in which buyers and sellers decide on prices without interference or control from an outside agency.|
|buyers have the freedom of choice and will choose the best bargain||In a free market, if there is a freedom to compete, the quality of goods will rise, and the cost of goods will go down because __.|
|an economy in which buyers and sellers decide on prices without interference or control from an outside agency||What is a free market?|
|producing their goods efficiently and cheaply||. Factory owners thought they were doing a good thing by keeping wages low and showing little concern for workers' safety. They only cared about___.|
|Lord Ashley||__ was a member of Parliament who interviewed workers to find out about their working conditions. He helped to pass laws to improve those conditions.|
|villagers||Before Industrialization, there were serfs. Serfs were replaced by __ who rented their land and were free to move elsewhere if they found a better deal. Some prospered, but most remained poor.|
|muscle||Poor people relied on __ power. They had to produce enough food to survive.|
|weather||Poor people depended on the __ and hard work.|
|market||Every village and town had at least one __ every week or so during the warmer months. Here, villagers could get things they needed or wanted, but might not be able to produce themselves.|
|winter||In which season did peasants slaughter animals and make items to trade at market when it got warmer|
|spring||In which season did peasants plow and smooth the fields and plant seeds; they went to market to trade|
|summer||In which season did peasants work in gardens and fields and trade at market|
|fall/ autumn||In this season peasants harvested their crops|
|poaching||Villagers were not allowed to hunt deer or rabbits that ate their crops. Doing so was called __. Only the lord and his family could hunt on the land; the villagers were only renting.|
|malnutrition||___, the result of poor diet, was common among the laboring poor and opened the door to disease.|
|Families lived in one-room dwellings that had dirt floors and no running water. An open hole in the room let out smoke from the fire. Beds were sacks of straw.||Describe the peasants' living conditions.|
|priest||There were no schools or hospitals. The __ was usually the only educated person in the village.|
|power||The poor had no say in government or no __ to change their lives in a peaceable way.|
|Religious||__ beliefs promised the poor they would not suffer in the next world because they suffered so much in this one.|
|dramatically||How did the Industrial Revolution change peoples' lives?|
|efficient||Over the years, clever people discovered more __ways to do their work.|
|foods||There were __ not known before, brought overseas from the Americas.|
|animals||__ were larger now thanks to better feed and breeding practices.|
|plows||There were many new tools and farming techniques. Stronger __ and seedlings with better root systems were helpful.|
|harnassing||New methods __of draft animals made better use of their strength.|
|draft||__ animals are animals used for pulling loads.|
|farms||Previously the land was divided into many small plots. By the 17th century, larger and more efficient __ were emerging.|
|enclosure movement||The __ lumped together many small fields and made the cost of producing crops fall. Fewer farm workers were needed.|
|landlords||Thanks to the enclosure movement, bigger harvests and lower costs caused the __ to get more profits. They became wealthy. Many villagers found themselves without work.|
| 1. American colonies|
2. to cities
3. or to nearby mines.
|Desperate for work, many villagers had to leave the countryside, flocking to __, __, or __|
|shafts||In the mines, __ were dug once the easy-to-mine coal and iron - located at the surface of the ground - were used.|
|ground||The coal and iron mines were often flooded with water beneath the earth's surface called __ water.|
|James Watt|| __ improved an existing steam engine. It was |
useful for pumping water out of the mines.
|Robert Fulton|| Steam engines were used to pull cars and wagons and |
___'s steam engine drove a boat.
|machines||During and after the Industrial Revolution ___ of all kinds were doing work that had been done by people and animals. It was a new age - the Industrial Age. Modern times had begun.|