European History Chpt 20

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Napoleon's rise BG

-Directory in power, fear of return to monarchy
-1797 elections->Supporters of Constitutional monarchy were majority
-Nap supports CM

Napoleon Bonaparte

-Born in Corsica (french education)
-Jacobin
-1797 Military victory against Austria in Italy
-1798 Move Against British in Egypt (Fail)
-1799 Abbe Siéyès replaces directory, more executive
-agrees to from popular control successful coup d'etat
-emperor 1804-1814

Napoleon First Consul

-plebiscite constitution
-1st modern dictator
-peasants/middle class support->stability and consolidate their gain
-1799-1804

Napoleon Policies

1. secure peace->defeat Austria, russia leaves coalition, 1802 peace w/ England
2. Centralize Power->accept all who are loyal, ruthles to the opposition
3. Concordat 1801->Pope Pius VII, catholicism is majority religion in France, priest appointed by pope, bishops by govt., church drops claims to confiscated land, recognition of superior church
4. Napoleonic Code-unified national law->entire country same laws, civic equality, no birth privilege, meritocracy

Napoleon Empire

Conquer most of Europe
700,000 men in uniform, 100,000 i reserves
-end of feudalism/old regime
-1803->Haiti rebellion, England War on France
-1805->3rd coalition, GB, Austria, Russia

Battle of Trafalgar

-Lord Nelson
-major british victory in spain
-no invasion of England

Austerlitz

-1805-defeat Austrian and Russian Army
-drive Austria out of Italy
-napoleon names himself king of Italy

Jena

-1806-defeats prussians
-official end of Holy Roman Empire
-confederation of the Rhine

Friedland

defeat Russians and prussians 1807

Treaty of Tilsit

-July 7, 1807
-Tsar Alexander and Napoleon
-takes half of Prussia->becomes open ally
-Russia becomes secret ally
-Napoleon rules empire like clan
'->family Members

Continental System

-Cut off English trade from Europe
-Fails
1. British navy really good
2. England has other Markets
3. Makes Europeans unhappy
-causes resentment and leads to smuggling
-invasion of spain/portugal

European Response: Areas controlled by France/Austria

-napoleonic code
-end privilege
-serfdom abolished
-church subordinate to state-toleration
-end of guilds
-Austria
->Resists and leads to another defeat 1809
->napoleon takes some territory and emperors daughter

European Response: Germany

-nationalism-> before Jena-cultural
->post Jena political, talk of unification
-Prussia-Frederick William (r. 1797-1840) III resists unification
-> Reforms
1. abolish serfdom
2. junker property monopoly ends
->military
1. install merit and better training
2. 42,000 men limit

European Response: Spain

-allied with France 1796
-france invades 1807 to break portugal/english alliance
-replace spanish bourbon king with his bro
-guerilla war drain on french resources

European Response: Russia

-1810-Tsar Alexander I ends allaince (nap annexes
holland and other eastern territories)
-withdraws from continental system
-1812-600,000 french troops invade russia
->russia uses scorched earth tactic
->battle of Bordino
->Napoleon returns to France w/only 100,000 men

Result of Russia battle

-Nap weakened, Austria, Russia, Prussia still afraid
-refuses to negotiate
-1813-14 coalition attacks
-1813 battle of Leipzig-england attacks through spain
-1813-1814 allies are in paris
-napoleon exiled to Elba (off coast of Italy)

Hundred Days

-3/1/1815 napoleon escapes and resumes power
-Battle of Waterloo june 18 1815
->British general wellington (but group effort)
->exiled to st helena dies 1821

Congress of Vienna

-Metternich, Austria
-balance of power in Europe
-restores bourbons in France Louis VXIII
-monarchies established in all new areas
-anti-republican->conservative
*not vindictive towards france
-return to 1792 borders
-quadruple allaince GB, Austria, Prussia, Russia
->peace allaince
-Holy allaince proposal by russia-GB refuses
-treaties made by mmonarchs are vallid after they die

Economic view of World

-mercantilism-old-competition over finite resources and favorable trade balance
-capitalism-new->free trade, increase resources

Romantic Movement

-reaction against enlightenment
-use to consider importance of Imagination and Intuition in addition to reason (revival of christianity)
-world beyond empirical observation

Rousseau

-material prosperity corrupted human nature
-raise children with as much individual freedom as possible
-the rights of nature over artificial society

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

-1781 critique of pure reason
-1788 critique of practical reason
-human perception is as much about the mind's own activities as it is about sensory experience
-2 Worlds
1. objective world-sensory experience
->reason is the master
2. subjective world-numeral world
-> practical reason-conscience is the master
-categorical imperative
-> innate sense of moral duty
-> conscience, a moral sense (golden rule)
-> god, immortality
-refutation of Hobbes, Locke, and Hume

Romantic Literature

-creative impulses of the mind
-rejects locke's passive receptor
-English Poets->coleridge, wordsworth
-imagination-gods work in the mind
-children closest to eternal world->least corrupted by material world
-Lord Byron (1788-1824)
->rebel
->rejects traditions
->personal liberty
-German-Romantic novel-sentimental medieval
->Von Goeth (1740-1832)-Faust-deal w/devil

Religion

-methodist
-John Wesley-inward heartfelt religion
-revolt against Deism+rational of church of England
-emotional in style and content
-spread through revivals and traveling preachers
Foundation of religion
->medieval-church
->reformation-bible
->enlightenment-nature and reason
->romantics-inner self
catholic revival in France

German nationalism

-reaction to napoleon and resentment of french
-study glory history and culture of german states
-Hegel (1770-1831)
->philosopher of history
->ideas are evolutionary
->thesis-predominate set of ideas
->anti-thesis-clash of idea
->synthesis-produced from clash= new thesis
->all periods of history are of equal value
->all cultures are valuable-each builds upon another

Islam

contradictory effects
-revival of christianity and nationalism views Islam as the enemy
+Hegel>all cultures valuable
-islam has fulfilled its role, now its done
>1798 napoleon's invasion of egypt
->cultural sensitivity
->opens Europe to Middle East
>Results
->Europeans visit middle east
->cultural diffusion-architecture
->Rosetta Stone
->Alerted ottomans of military superiority of Europe-attempt at ottoman reform

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