What does ADA do?
Extends non-discriminatory protection to the private section.
The provisions made to allow a student to access and demonstrate learning.
What's an adaptive device?
Any piece of equipment designed to improve the function of a body part.
Changes made to the environment, curriculum, and instruction or assessment practices in order for a student to be a successful learner.
Adaptions and modifications are based on what?
Behavior's that meet the needs of the environment.
An individual who is not an attorney, but who assists parents and children in their dealings with school districts regarding the children's special education programs.
A term which refers to emotions and attitudes.
A group assessment procedure sometimes used with infants and preschoolers; professionals from different disciplines
Assistive technology device
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability. a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such device.
Assistive technology service
Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.
A term used to refer to children who are not currently identified as having a disability but are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability.
A written agreement between two parties in which one agrees to complete a specified task and in return the other party agrees to provide a specific reward upon completion of task.
Board of Education v. Rowley
Case that helped to define how a special education program may be determined to be "appropriate." -"reasonably calculated to provide educational benefit"
Desegregated the school systems for African American students.
How many categories are there under IDEA
13 and child must meet one in order to get services.
Placement in a special education program according to your IDEA category
Child with a disability
A child with mental retardation, hearing impairments , speech or language impairments, visual impairments , serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
Criterion referenced assessment
An assessment that compares a student's performance with a preset standard.
Chronologically age appropriate
Instruction and materials should be directed at the student's actual age, rather than to the interests and tastes of younger children.
Voluntary association of school districts that band together to provide special education services using a shared administrative structure.
A standard by which special education services may be judged. Skills are taught at varied locations in the community rather than in the classroom in order to facilitate generalization and application.
giving the individual new ways to deal with a disability.
What is taught.
Method of instruction.
A document that specifies an if-then relationship between performance of a specified behavior(s) and access to/or delivery of a special reward. (if/then)
the parent understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of an activity
An assessment that has a set standard for mastery.
The subject matter that is to be learned.
A methodology in which a child's progress in the curriculum is measured at frequent intervals.
A technique that measures a student's level of mastery of a specific sample of knowledge.
The social movement to transfer individuals with disabilities, especially persons with mental retardation, from large institutions to smaller, community based residences and work settings.
Development which does not occur within expected time ranges
changes in instruction to meet specific needs
any approach that is characterized by clear learning objectives, active engagement and evaluation of students
A physical, sensory, cognitive or affective impairment that causes the student to be less able to perform a particular activity.
Doctor of medicine
A person holding a license to practice medicine (medical doctor) or (doctor of osteopathy).
the elements of notice, opportunity to be heard to defend ones' self, and to redress grievances.
A condition which has limited a child's opportunity for educational experience resulting in a child achieving less than a normal level of learning development.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
original name for IDEA also known as EAHC
(a) A condition whereby a child exhibits one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects the child's performance in the educational environment: an inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (b) Includes children who are schizophrenic but does not include children who are socially maladjusted unless they are also determined to have an emotional disability as determined by evaluation.
English learner or limited English proficient student (ESL)
A child who does not speak English or whose native language is not English, and who is not currently able to perform ordinary classroom work in English.
Educational approach that provides extra learning experiences that the standard curriculum would not normally include.
all the elements that make up learning setting
14th Amendment -no state may deny any person equality or liberty because of that person's classification according to race, nationality, or religion.
Sterilization of a group of people to prevent their DNA from being passed to another generation. Galton and Goddard are the ones who proposed the idea
A qualified person in a field relevant to the child's disability who administers specific and individualized assessment for the purpose of special education evaluation and placement.
Children whose performance deviates from the norm, either below or above, to the extent that social educational programming is needed.
Extended school day
special education student to receive instruction for a period longer than the standard school day. This sometimes includes "double" kindergarten, later afternoons, or earlier starting times.
Extended school year
A provision for a special education student to receive instruction during ordinary school "vacation" periods.
evidence based practice
making decisions on the established and recorded facts of the situation
FERPA - Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
A federal law that regulates the management of student records and disclosure of information from those records. The Act has its own administrative enforcement mechanism.
Free appropriate public education (FAPE)
Special education and related services that (1) have been provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge; (2) meet the standards of the State educational agency; (3) include an appropriate preschool, elementary school, or secondary school education in the State involved; and (4) are provided in conformity with the individualized education program.
Full and individual evaluation
Procedures used in accordance with the IDEA to determine whether a child has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the child needs.
Experimental manipulation of antecedent or consequent events representing those observed in the child's natural environment to verify their function in either triggering or maintaining problem behavior.
Functional behavior assessment (FBA)
Systematic process of gathering information about the purposes (function) a problem behavior serves for an individual; that information then guides the design of three basic types of interventions: indirect assessment (structured interviews with significant others),direct descriptive assessment (systematic observations), and functional analysis.
A curriculum focused on practical life skills and usually taught in community based settings with concrete materials that are a regular part of everyday life. The purpose of this type of instruction is to maximize the student's generalization to real life use of his/her skills.
Gross motor skills
Functions which require large muscle movements; for example walking or jumping.
When the environment causes the person with a disability to be unable, or have limited ability, to access that environment.
Preconceptions about an individual based on characteristics.
An educational practice in which students of diverse abilities are placed within the same instructional groups.
Home school district
The school district in which the person resides who has legal custody of the child.
students of similar abilities are placed within the same instructional groups.
IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
1975, Education For All Children Education Act; 1990, name change from EFAHCA to IDEA, Individuals with Disabilities Act; 2004, name change to IDEIA, Individuals with disabilities Improved Act.
2004 Federal regulation governing special education.
When an organ, muscle, or other physiological portion of the body functions at a lower than normal level.
Providing education for all students in the regular classroom setting.
Independent education evaluation
An evaluation conducted by a qualified evaluator who is not employed by the public agency responsible for the education of the child in question.
Individualized education plan (IEP)
The document developed which includes statements of present levels of performance, annual goals, short-term instructional objectives, specific educational services needed, relevant dates, regular educational program participation, and evaluation procedures, must be signed by parents as well as educational personnel.
Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Document which outlines the services to be delivered to families of infants and toddlers receiving special services. For children from birth to three years of age.
Individualized transition plan (ITP)
Specifies desired post school outcomes in four areas (employment, postsecondary education, residential, and recreation/leisure) and instructional programming and supports to help student attain those outcomes; required part of student's IEP by age 16.
Infants and toddlers
Children not yet three years of age.
Special education services delivered in a child's own home. This is sometimes done to facilitate generalization for children with cognitive disabilities and to generalize self-control strategies for children with behavioral problems.
Group of professionals from different disciplines (e.g. education, psychology, speech and language, medicine) who work together to plan and implement an individualized education program (IEP) for a child with disabilities.
Any effort made on behalf of children and adults with disabilities; may be preventative, remedial, or compensatory.
Identifying an individual as part of a category of people.
Level I Due Process Hearing
An administrative remedy for alleged violation of the rights of children with disabilities.
Level II Due Process Hearing
An administrative remedy provided under the school code which provides for appeal from Level I decisions. This remedy must normally be exhausted in order for a court to consider a special education matter.
The return of children with mild disabilities to a regular classroom for a portion of each school day.
A voluntary, non binding, dispute resolution process. Medical services: Services provided by a licensed physician to determine a child's medically related disability that results in the child's need for special education and related services.
Extended rights to education to all children with disabilities in Washington D.C.
An individual who has characteristics shared with others that represent a less empowered category of people.
An education approach in which a school's curriculum and instructional methods are designed and implemented so that all children acquire an awareness, acceptance, and appreciation of cultural diversity and recognize the contributions of many cultures.
Multidisciplinary conference (MDC
A required gathering under IDEA and is the only body that can make certain determinations — specifically about a child's eligibility for special education
Multidisciplinary evaluation team (MET)
A team of persons including individuals described as the individualized education program team and other qualified professionals who shall determine whether a child is eligible for special education.
Multiple Testing requirement
No educational decision may be based on the result of only one assessment.
the language normally used by the individual or, in the case of a child, the language normally used by the parents of the child.
The genetic predisposition to certain behaviors.
Norm Referenced Assessment
An assessment that compares a student's performance to a sample of that student's peers.
The philosophy that individuals with disabilities should, to the maximum extent possible, to be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability.
The environment's influence on adapting a person's behavior.
Occupational therapist (OT)
A professional who programs and/or delivers instructional activities and materials to help children and adults with disabilities learn to participate in useful activities.
OCR - US Office for Civil Rights
An agency of the federal government's executive branch within the Department of Education. It is charged with enforcing a number of civil rights statutes including Section 504.
Orthopedic impairment (OI)
Impairments to the muscle or skeletal structure. Impairments that are caused by congenital anomaly, disease and other causes, such as amputation or cerebral palsy, and that adversely affect a child's performance in the educational environment.
Other health impairments (OHI)
Limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, due to chronic or acute health problems which adversely affect a pupil's educational performance.
OSEP - US Office of Special Education Programs
An office within OSERS charged with assuring that the various states comply with IDEA.
OSERS - US Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services
An agency of the federal government's executive branch within the Department of Education.
Deinstitutionalized children with mental retardation (MR) in the state of Pennsylvania.
The legal guardian; an individual assigned to be a surrogate parent; a natural, adoptive, or foster parent of a child with whom the child lives, or an individual who is legally responsible for the child's welfare.
Person first language
Placing the individual ahead of the disability.
A document upon which essential information is entered and preserved.
Plessy Vs Furgeson
the case that gave African americans access to train cars
The setting in which the special education service is delivered to the student. It must be derived from the student's IEP.
A child who is at least three years of age but who has not reached the required age for kindergarten.
keeping possible problems from becoming a disability.
Prior written notice.
that includes a description of the action proposed or refused by the school, an explanation of why the school proposes or refuses to take the action, a description of any options the school considered and the reasons why those options were rejected, a description of each evaluation procedure, test, record or report the school used as a basis for the proposal or refusal, a description of any other factors that were relevant to the school's proposal or refusal, a full explanation of all of the procedural safeguards available to the parent and a listing of sources for parents to contact to obtain assistance in understanding the notice.
Preconceptions of an individual based on characteristics perceived to be displayed by the race of the individual.
The amount of loss of skills a child experiences over an instructional break (primarily summer vacation) and the amount of time it takes him/her to recover the lost skills.
Regular education initiative (REI)
A concept promoted by former Assistant Secretary of Education Madeline Will. The goal is to merge the special education and regular education systems into a unitary system; the general education program.
overcoming a disability through training or education.
An educational program designed to teach a person to overcome a disability through training and education.
Classroom in which special education students spend part of the school day and receive individualized special education services.
A service provided to the families of children who require extraordinary forms of care so that the family can take vacations, handle business affairs, and have some relief from the duties of caring for the child.
A special education placement for less than half a child's school day.
A procedure in which groups of children are examined and/or tested in an effort to identify children who are most likely to have a disability; identified children are then referred for more intensive examination and assessment.
Provision of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibits recipients of federal funds from discrimination against persons with disabilities.
A special classroom, usually located within a regular public school building that includes only exceptional children.
Specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including (1) instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and (2) instruction in physical education. Individually planned, specialized, intensive, outcome -directed instruction; characterized by the systematic use of research-based instructional methods, the application of which is guided by frequent measures of student performance.
Special education referral
A written request for an evaluation to determine whether a pupil is eligible for special education services
Adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part to ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that he or she can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children.
Tests which have norms reflecting a larger population (usually these are age or grade based norms reflecting the performance of children throughout the country on the same tests).
A descriptive statistic that shows the average amount of variability among a set of scores. A small standard deviation indicates that the score in the sample are distributed close to the mean; a larger standard deviation indicates that more scores in the sample fall further form the mean.
when a person records how many times they engaged in targeted behavior
when a person chooses or chooses not to preform a behavior
Ward of the state
a child who as defined by the state where the child resides is a foster child or ward of the sate or is in custody of a public child welfare