Chapter 1 Scope

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1. Disease-causing microorganisms are called

pathogens.

2. The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called

decomposers.

3. The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called

prokaryotes.

4. When humans manipulate, the genes of microorganisms the process is called

genetic engineering.

5. Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?

mosquito

6. All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that

are too small to be seen with the unaided eye.

7. Which activity is an example of biotechnology?

humans using yeast to make beer and wine

8. Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?

lack cell structure

9. The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

10. Pasteur used swan-neck flasks in his experiments to prove that

dust in the air was a source of living microorganisms

11. Which of the following is not a process in the scientific method?

belief in a preconceived idea

12. Spontaneous generation is the belief that

living things arise from nonliving matter.

13. Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that

a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease.

14. Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?

kingdom

15. Which of the following is a scientific name?

Bacillus subtilis

16. Taxonomy does not involve

Koch's postulates.

17. The smallest and most significant taxon is

species.

18. The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called

phylogeny.

19. A scientist studying the sequence of nucleotides in the rRNA of a bacterial species is working on

determining evolutionary relatedness

20. A scientist discovers a new microbial species. It is a single-celled eucaryote without cell walls. In which kingdom will it likely be classified?

Protista

21. A scientist collects grass clippings to find the source of an outbreak of tularemia is an example of working in the field of

epidemiology.

22. Helminths are

parasitic worms.

23. All of the following pertain to photosynthesis, except

it occurs only in members of the kingdom Plantae.

24. Organisms called parasites are

always harmful to their host.

25. The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was

Joseph Lister.

26. Which scientist showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis?

Robert Koch

27. Select the correct descending taxonomic hierarchy (left to right):

family, genus, species

28. When assigning a scientific name to an organism,

both genus and species names are italicized or underlined.

29. The scientist/s that proposed assigning organisms to one of three domains is/are

Carl Woese and George Fox.

30. In Whittaker's system, the protozoa and algae are classified in the kingdom

Protista.

31. Which kingdom does not contain any eukaryotes?

Monera

32. Which of the following are the main decomposers of the earth?

bacteria and fungi

33. The most common infectious cause of death worldwide is

HIV/AIDS.

34. Which of the following diseases is transmitted by mosquitoes?

malaria

35. All of the following are correct about prokaryotes, except

they have organelles.

36. All of the following contribute to the rise of emerging diseases, except

the decrease in drug resistant bacteria.

Which scientist discovered heat resistant bacterial spores?

Ferdinand Cohn

38. Which of the following is the correct way to type the scientific name of this bacterium?

Staphylococcus aureus

39. Where are you most likely to find bacteria belonging to the domain Archaea?

in a hot spring

40. When microbes are introduced into the environment to restore stability, the process is called

bioremediation.

41. Which of the following diseases probably involves microbial infection?

gastric ulcers
female infertility
coronary artery disease
cervical cancer

42. Cyanide is a chemical used to dissolve gold and is harmful to the environment and organisms living there. A couple of biochemists came up with the idea of using the bacteria Pseudomonas to break down the cyanide used by a Gold mining company. This use of bacteria is a good example of ____.

Bioremediation

43. Which of the following branches of Microbiology is important when someone is broken out in hives and experiencing respiratory distress due to an exposure to a microbial toxin?

Immunology

44. Bacteria and fungi are important in bioremediation. These decomposers are also called ___.

Saprobes

45. Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom. True False

True

46. Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's 5 kingdoms. True False

True

47. Members of the kingdom Fungi are photosynthetic. True False

False

48. A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria. True False

False

49. The fossil record has established that prokaryotes existed on earth for approximately 2 billion years before eukaryotes appeared. True False

True

50. It has been over 25 years since a new infectious disease has emerged in the world. True False

False

51. The term sterile means free of all life forms. True False

True

52. All microorganisms are parasites. True False

False

53. During a scientific experiment, the control group is used to directly test or measure the consequences of a variable in the study. True False

False

54. The scientific method involves formulating a tentative explanation, called the hypothesis, to account for what has been observed or measured. True False

True

55. Once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised. True False

False

56. A hypothesis must be tested before it can be considered a theory. True False

True

57. The names of the three proposed Domains are: Bacteria, Protista, Eukarya. True False

False

58. One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments. True False

True

59. The scientific field called _____ is involved in the identification, classification, and naming of organisms.

Taxonomy

60. _____ is the area of biology that states that living things undergo gradual structural and functional changes over long periods of time.

evolution

61. Living things ordinarily too small to be seen with the unaided eye are termed _____.

microorganisms

62. _____ are the group of microorganisms composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering.

viruses

63. A scientist that constructs a hypothesis and then tests its validity by outlining predicted events of the hypothesis followed by experiments to test for those events is using the _____ approach.

scientific method

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