nickname-il Duce, "the leader" Dictator. Found Italys Facist Party. Fascism-agreesive nationalism. Backed by blackshirts, Mussolini threatened to march on Rome claiming he was coming to defend Italy against a communist revoolution. Mussolini worked to destroy democracy and set up dictatorship.
found by Mussolini. (italy)-agressive nationalism. believed nation was more important that the individual. argued that individualism nade countries weak and that a strong govt led by a dictator was needed to impose order on society. fascists believed a nation became great by expanding its territory and building up its millitary. Fascism was strongly anticommunist.
led the Bolshevik Party, established communist govts throughout Russian empire.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR0
After Lenin died, Stalin became new soviet dictator. began an effort to industrialize his country. Became soviet dictator. tolerating no oppostition, the effort to industralize his country brought about the deaths of 8-10 million peasants who resisted the communist policies
anticommunist, admired Mussolini led Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers). While in prison Hitler wrote autobiography, Mein Kampf "My Struggle" claimed that Germans belonged to a "master race" called Aryans they needed living space and called for Germany to expand. According to hitler, Slavic people belonged to inferior race. He focused on getting Nazis elected to the Reichstag, the lower house of the German parliament. By 1932, Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag. 1934 HItler became German president, new title of fuher or "leader"
Japan did not earn enough money from its exports to pay for its imports, which limited economic growth and increased unemployment. WHen depression hit, other countries raiesed their tariffs which made situation even worse. Japans target-Manchuria
only way for Jpaan to get needed resources was to seize territory. they targeted Manchuria in northern China. Japan invaded manchuria without govts permission.
Americans support isolationism for two reasons. First, the european refusal to repay their loans and second, articles appeared arguing that arms manufacturers had tricked the US into entering WWI. Senator Gerald P Nye investigated. NYE committee documented huge profits that arms factories had made during war. report created the impression that these businesses incluenced the US to go to war.
Nuetrality Act of 1935
Worried that German and Italian aggression might lead to war, congress passed Nuetrality Act of 1935. Based on the belief that arms sales had helped bring the US into WWI< the act made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war.
articles appeared arguing that arms manufacturers had tricked the US into entering WWI. Senator Gerald P Nye investigated. NYE committee documented huge profits that arms factories had made during war. report created the impression that these businesses incluenced the US to go to war.
Spanish Civil War
1936 rebellion led by Francsico Franco erupted in Spain. became a civil war. Germany and Italy sent tanks to help Franco. To keep US neutral, congress passed another act, banning the sale of arms to either side in a civil war
After Spanish Civil war, Hitler and Mussolini signed an agreement pledging to cooperate internatioal issues. Became Rome-Berlin Axis.
After the Rome-Berlin Axis, Japan aligned intself with German and Italy when it signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany. Pact required the two countires to exchange info about communist groups. Together, Germany, Japan, and Italy became known as the Axis Powers
Neutrality Act of 1937
continued the ban on selling arms to nations at war, but also required warring countries tp biu nonmilitary supplies from US on a "cash-and-carry" basis. If a country at war wanted goods from the US, it had to send its own ships to pick up the goods and had to pay cash. Loans were not allowed
declared that internatioal relations was secondary to establishment of a sound national economy. first priortiy was ending the depression, byt he was noit an isolationist. he supported internatioalism, the idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps prevent war. Roosevelt supporte internatioalism but knew public wanted neutrality. He warned that the nuettrality acts might lead US into war. Japanese attack on china in manchuria, Roosevelt decided to help Chinese
Unification of Austria and Czechoslovakia. Hitlers idea of unification of all german speaking nations, his first demands concerned with uniting Austria and Czechoslovakis.
Hitler announced claims to sudentendland, an area of Czechoslovakia. Since Austria shared a common culture and language with Germany, many people had accepted the ANschuluss. In Czechoslovcakia, on the other hand, ppl spoke diff languages. Czheck was allied with France and SOviet Union. Czechs resisted Germanys demand for Sudentenladn
publicly promised to support France, Britains ally
Brit, Fr, Italy, and Ger agreed to meet in munich to decide Czechs fate. Bri and France agreed to hitlers demands (appeasement). Czech was informed that it must give up Sudentendland or fight Germany on its own. Inviolation of the Munich agreemtn, Germany sent troops into Czech and broke up the country. Slovakia became independent in name, but was actually under German control. Czech lands became a German protectorate
After Munich conference, German had its sights on Poland. He demanded the return of Danzig to German control. Hitlers demands on Poland convinced the Bri and French that appeasement had failed. 1939, Bri announced that if Poland went to war, Bri and Fr would come to its aid. Hitler ordered German army to invade poland. He also began negotiations with USSR, if Ger was going to fight Bri and Fr, Hitler did not want to have to fihgt the Soviets too. Polish army was unable to cope with the German blitzkrieg attack. Oct 5, 1939, Polish army had been defeated. After taking Poland, Hitler now decided to attack Norway and Denmark.
German proposed nonagression treaty to Soviets, Stalin agreed. Nazi-Soviet Pact shocked the world. Communism and Nazim were supposed to be totally opposed to eachother. Treaty also contained a secret deal between Ger and Soviet Union to divide POland between them. June 1941, in violation of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Hitler launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union
World War I
Sept 1, 1939, Germany invaded POland from the west, and soon after the Soviets invaded from the ast. Bri and Fr declared war on Germany, marking start of WWI.
Germans used a new type of welfare, blitzkrieg, or lightning war. It used large numbers of massed tanks to break through and rapidly encircle enemy positions. Polish army was unable to cope with the German attack. Oct 5, 1939, Polish army had been defeated
WEstern Europe remained eerily quiet. Germans referred to this situation as the sitzkrieg or "sitting war". Bri called it the "Bore War" while AMer newspapers called it the "Phony War", Bri had sent troops to France, but both countries remained on the defensive, waiting for the Gers to attack
French built a line of concrete bunkers called Maginot Line along Ger border. French waited behind Maginot Line for the Germans to approach. Decision allowed Ger to ocncentrate on Poland first before turning west to face Bri and French. After taking Poland, Hitler now decided to attack Norway and Denmark. within a month, Ger controlled bothh countries. HIter now put attention on France. TO get around the Maginot Line, the Gers would have to invade the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg first-which is exactly what they did. Bri adn Frenchforces raced north into Belgium-mistake. Gers easily smasshed through the French lines, Bri and French armies now trapped in Belgium
After trapping the Allied forces in Belgium, Germans began to drive them toward the English Channel. Only hope for Bri and France was to evacuate their surviving troops by sea, but the Germans had captured all but one port, Dunkirk. As german forces closed in on Dunkirk, Hitler suddenly ordered them to stop. No one is sure why. This gave Bri army time to begin their evacuation. 850 ships headed into Dunkirk. Evacuation saved thousands of Bri and French troops. "Miracle at Dunkirk". ALmost all of the British armys equiptment remained at Dunkirk (bad). June 1940, Hitler accepted the French surrender. To govern the rest of the country, Ger installed a puppet govt at the town of Vichy and made Marshal Phillipe Petan the new govts figurehead leader. Petain prediected-that Bri will have her neck wrung like a chicken
Petan, Marshal Phillipe
To govern the rest of the country, Ger installed a puppet govt at the town of Vichy and made Marshal Phillipe Petan the new govts figurehead leader. Petain prediected-that Bri will have her neck wrung like a chicken
leader of Bri.-replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister. HItler expected Bri to negotiate peace after France surrendered. BUt for Churchill, peace was not an option. Hitler prepared to invade Bri
Battle of Britain
June 1940, German air force called the Luftwaffe began to attack Bri shipping in the English channel. Luftwaffe launched an allout battle to destroy British Royal Air Force. German bombers accidently bombed London, the Bri capital. this enraged British, who responded by bombing Berlin the following night. Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe to stop tis attack on Bri and concentrate on bombing London. Bri had one major advantage. They ddeveloped a new technolog called radar, where Bri could detect incoming German aircraft and direct Bri fighters to intercept them. Bri fighters inflicted more losses on the Germans. HItler cancelled the invasion of Bri.
one of the jews who suffered through holocaust
hebrew term for HOlocaust is shoah, means catastrophe
Nzis deprived German Jews of many rights. the Nuremberg Laws took citizenship away from Jewish Germans and banned marriage between Jews and other Germans. It defined Jews as a person with atleast one jewish grandparent and prohibited jews from holding public office or voting. Soon the passports of jews were marked with a red "J" to clearly identify them as jewish
anti-jewish violence erupted throughout germany and austria. night became known as "night of broken glass". Look up Grynszpan and Goebbels. Kristallnacht did not end with the dawn. follownig that night with Gestap, the govts secret police, arrested Jews, relaeasing them only if they agreed to emigrate and surrender all their possessions. Nazi Hermann Goering fined the Jewish community to pay for damage of the Kristallnacht.
Jewish refugee who shot and killed a German diplomat in Paris. He was seeking revenge for when thousands of ews had been deported from Germany to Poland. (Part of Kristallnacht)
Hitler ordered Goebbels to stage attacks against Jews that would appear to be a spontaneaous popular reaction to news of the murder (Part of Kristallnacht)
several factors limited jewish immigration to the uS. First, Nazi prohibited Jews from taking more than about 4 dollars out of Germany. Second, many countries refused to accept Jewish immigrants
SS St. Louis
SS St. Louis entered the hrbour in Havana, Cuba, with 930 Jewishrefugees on board. Most of these passengers hoped to go to the US eventually, but they had certificates improperly issued by Cubas director of immigration. Cuban govt revoked the certificates and refused to let the refugees come ashore.
Nazi leaders met at Wannsee Conference in 1942 to determine the "final solution of the Jewish question"
detention centers where healthy individuals worked as slave laborers until they dropped dead of exhaustion or disease. Buchenwald-first and largest concentration camp in the world.
where elderly or disabled jews and others would be executed immediately in massive gas chambers. Auschwitz was a famous extermination camp. killled 2000 ppl at a time
causes of Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour could be traced back to two years before when Poosevelt made policies for helping Britain against Germany. Attack on Pearl Harbour was what finally brought US to WWII> Ironically, Japans decision to attack the US was a direct result of Roosevlets efforts to help Bri in its war against Ger. Roosevlet introduced policies to discourage the Japanese from attacking the British empire. Roosevelt began putting economic pressure on Japan. Japan depeneded on US for many key materials. The Export Control Act, gave roosevelt the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials to other nations. Roosevelt blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. Furious at US, Japanese signed an alliance with Germany and Italy, becoming member of the Axis. Later, American intelligence decoded Japanese communications that made it cleaer Japan was preparing to go to war against US. in Novemer, US commaders received a war warning at Pearl Harbour, but Hawaii was not mentioned as a target, so they were not suspicious. Japans surporise attack on December 7th, 1941, sank or damaged 21 ships of the US. Japan was now at war with US. Hitler believed time had come to declare war on US to protect Japan. Hitler underetimated the strength of the US. December 11th, Germany and Italy both declared war on US.
Neutrality Act of 1939
Roosevelt officially proclaimed US neutral after Bri and Fr declared war on Ger. He was determined to do all he could to help the two coutries against Hitler. He called congress to revise the neutrality laws. HE asked to eliminate the ban on arms sales to nations at war. under the Neutrality Act of 1939 warning nations could buy weapons from US only if they paid cash and carried the arms on their own ships
Chruchill asked Roosevelt to transfer AMerican destroyers to Britain. Roosevelt used a loophole in the provision of the Neutrality Act that required cash for purchases. IN exchange for the right to build Amrican bases on British-controlled land, Roosevle tsent 50 old AMer destroyers to Bri. 1941, German U-boat fired on the American destroyer, Greer. Germans escalated hostilities by targeting two American destroyers.
Fight for Freedom Committee
urged the repeal of all neturality laws and wanted stronger action against Germany
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the ALlies
pressed for increased the American aid to the allies but opposed armed intervention
America First COmmittee
an isolationist group that firmyl opposed any American intervention or aid to the allies. Amer first COmmittee disagreed with Lend-Lease Act
election of 1940
headed debate over neutrality took place in midst of 1940 election. Roosevelt (democrat) decided to run for an unprecendented (never been done before) 3rd term. Ran against Republican Wendell WIllkie. ROosevelt won
Republican nominee for election of 1940. went against Roosevelt. Promised the same as Roosevlet, that he would stay out of the war but assist the allies. Roosevlet won
set up because Britain had run out of fubnds to wage its war against Germany. US able to lend or lease arms to any country considered "vital to the defense of US". US could sent weapons to Bri if Bri promised to return it or pay rent. No charge to BRi-just a loan. Lend-lease Act eventually went to Soviet Union as well. 1841, Roosevlet began sending lend-lease to China b/c he hoped it would enable the Chinese to tie down the Japanese and prevent them from attacking elsewhere.
Hemispheric defense zone
Roosevelt coul not simply order the US Navy to protect British cargo ships, since the US was still technically neutral. INstead, he developed idea of hemispheric defense zone. Roosevelt declared that the entire western half of the Atlantic was part of the western hemisphere and therefore netural. He then ordred the US navy to patrol the western Atlantic and reveal the location of German submarines to the British.
ROosevlet and Churchill (Bri) met face-to-face and agreed on the text of the Atlantic Charter. the charter committed the two leaders to a postwar world of democracy, nonagression, and free trade. German U-boat fired on the American destroyer, Greer. Germans escalated hostilities by targeting two American destroyers.
Export Control Act
Roosevlet introduced policies to discourage the Japanese from attacking the British empire. Roosevelt began putting economic pressure on Japan. Japan depeneded on US for many key materials. The Export Control Act, gave roosevelt the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials to other nations. Roosevelt blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. Furious at US, Japanese signed an alliance with Germany and Italy, becoming member of the Axis.