A learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object.
An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world.
Customer Decision Making Process
A five-step process used by consumers when buying goods or services. Steps include Need Recognition, Information Search, Evaluation of Alternatives, Purchases and Post Purchase Behavior.
The result of an imbalance between actual and desired states.
When a customer researches the different options for a purchase.
Evaluation of Alternatives
When a consumer evaluates the different options for their purchase.
When the consumer makes an exchange.
Post Purchase Behavior
How the person responds to the purchase, can be positive or negative.
The inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions.
Internal Information Search
The process of recalling past information stored in the memory.
External Information Search
The process of seeking information in the outside environment.
Nonmarketing Controlled Information Search
A product information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion.
Marketing Controlled Information Search
A product information source that originates with marketers promoting the product.
Also know as a consideration set, a group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose.
Limited Decision Making
The type of decision making that requires a moderate amount of time for gathering information and deliberating about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category.
Extensive Decision Making
The most complex type of consumer decision making, used when buying an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item; requires use of several criteria for evaluating options and much time for seeking information.
A process that creates changes in behavior immediate or expected through experience and practice.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization.
Primary Membership Group
A reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends, and co-workers.
Secondary Membership Group
A reference group with which people associate less consistently and more formally than a primary membership group, such as a club, professional group, or religious group.
A driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs.
The amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior.
A group in society that influences an individual's purchasing behavior.
Aspirational Reference Group
A group that someone would like to join.
Nonaspirational Reference Group
A group with which an individual does not want to associate.
An individual who influences the opinions of others.
The process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture.
A process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts wit his or her feelings or beliefs.
The process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others.
A process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports his or her personal beliefs.
How consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evaluations.
The way an individual actually perceives himself or herself.
The way an individual would like to be.
A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms.
How cultural values and norms are passed down to children.
Any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing.
A learned ability to differentiate among similar products.
A form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first.
A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group.
The enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct.
The recognition of an unfulfilled need and a product that will satisfy it.
Routine Response Behavior
The type of decision making exhibited by consumers buying frequently purchased, low-cost goods, and services; requires little search and decision time.
Factors Determining Involvement
Previous experience, interest, perceived risk and negative consequences, situation and social visibility.
The set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and the artifacts, or products, of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next.