IHA Freshman English I Honors-Nonfiction Test
5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Emily Rapp
- begging the question
- figurative language
- a Poster Child; autobiography
- b employs figures of speech and exists on more than a literal level; figurative language heightens meaning by implicitly or explicitly representing something in terms of some other thing
- c a memorable, brief expression of some principle or truth; a saying or adage; ("A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds." Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self-Reliance)
- d a controversial argument usually attacking another point of view or policy
- e also called "circular reasoning"; basing a conclusion on a premise that has not yet been proven or agreed upon (taking a vote for something that has not been discussed because there is an assumption that everyone feels the same way or has come to the same conclusion ("The United States was founded upon Christian principles (was it?); therefore, all laws should be consistent with Christian doctrine."
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- careless ways of analyzing and interpreting information; Hasty generalities are often based on limited information: ("That restaurant is never open; I went there three times an it was closed" OR "That teacher is so unfair; did you hear about the student she failed without any reason?"); Sweeping generalities might be based on data, but the generality does not account for variations in the data: (An elderly driver is cut off on the highway by a teenager and concludes that the minimum driving age needs to be raised.)
- closely related to scapegoating; propagandist attempts to oversimplify, or present a complex issue "in a nutshell'; this technique is disrespectful to the audience, assuming they are too uneducated or unsophisticated to sift through complex or conflicting data and come up with their own conclusions. (Ex.: "If people hadn't tried to buy houses they couldn't really afford, we wouldn't have a foreclosure crisis right now." Or "To some extent I would say this; if you've seen one city slum, you've seen them all."
- the act or process of invoking an appeal to a higher power for assistance; when someone calls on God; a prayer
- a type of false dilemma that offers two 'bad' alternatives; in order to make the choice more appealing, an even worse alternative is presented as being the only other option; after all, an imperfect option is better than the horrendous alternative. ("Williams may have lied under oath, but at least he never embezzled money from his campaign, like his opponent.")
- similar to name-calling, but more overt with a stronger intention; as name-calling dehumanizes, scapegoating actually identifies a person or group as the cause of the problems; having identified the 'enemy,' the reader/listener then feels justified in hating—even seeking to destroy—that enemy. Scapegoating is a gross oversimplification of the issue. (Ex.: the Holocaust!)
5 True/False Questions
types of nonfiction → reference books, interviews, historical documents, speeches, diaries, journals, newspapers, essays, informations texts, biographies, autobiographies, memoirs
false or weak analogy → a comparison of two things, alike in certain respects; in writing, an unfamiliar object or idea is explained by comparing it with other objects or ideas that are more familiar
plain folk → takes advantage of the tendency of people to distrust outsiders; if the individual is made to seem like an ordinary citizen, he then seems more worthy of the public's trust ("Former President Ronald Reagan was often photographed chopping wood." "Former President James Carter insisten on being sworn into office as 'Jimmy'."
declarative sentence → a sentence that makes a declaration
4 main types of nonfiction → 1. biography, autobiography, and memoir; 2. essay (narrative, expository, descriptive, persuasive); 3. speech; 4. informational text