Rheumatism disorder that affects joints, muscles, and tissues caused by position and posture of a person which occurred in workers in the factories
health reformer who wanted unsanitary conditions to change by having new drainage and sewers in the city which would reduce illnesses and death
english surgeon who was the first to come up with the concept of anti-bacterial medicine to apply to wounds and kill the bacteria
believed that all organisms evolutionized into what they are now from their ancestors which were less capable and less limited to do many of the things the present organisms can do
An american novelists/journalists who attended naturalist school. He is known for his characters who succeeded at their objective but lacked a moral code.
Passenger rail vehicle that runs on a track along public and urban streets. Allowed for better public transportation.
The idea that over time a species will gain either a mutation, or an adaptation that will better suit their ever-changing environment.
english clergy man who invented the power loom. Edmund's loom was put into factories, and made them flourish.
A French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
German economist who argued for the approach of Zollverein to economic growth during the second quarter of the century.
Successful mill owner. Refused to use child labor and encouraged the organization of labor unions. generally treated workers well.
Iron Law of Wages
proposed principle of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.
Angry old cottage industry workers, artisans and craftsman who lost their jobs to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
Idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I.
Political idea that stresses people's membership in a nation and community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory, in the 18th and 19th centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe.
The doctrine that all events are predetermined by fate and are therefore unalterable or
the acceptance of the belief that all events are predetermined and inevitable.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum; usually caused by unsafe sexual contact.
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
Was An English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer who argued for economic freedom and the abolition of slavery and the death penalty. He also had the idea of utilitarianism, which said that social policies should promote the "greatest good for the greatest number"
President of the French Second Republic and ruler of the second empire of France. Remembered mainly for his energetic foreign policy which aimed to Jettison the limitations imposed on France since 18 15 by the Concert of Europe.
(1820-1903) Was an English philosopher, biologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era. He saw the human race as driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by a brutal economic struggle that determined the "survival of the fittest."
theory that bad smells is what causes disease, later weakened and proved false by germ theory
*shows peoples ignorance of disease, Edwin Chadwicks reforms were based off of this and even though it was wrong, it got good results.
A branch of physics built on Newton's laws of mechanics that investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.
He was a gifted carpenter and jack-of-all-trades. He invented the spinning Jenny in 1765.
(1736-1819) he studied the steam engine and saw that the Newcomen engine's waste of energy could be reduced by adding a separate condenser. This invention(patented in 1769) greatly increased efficiency of the steam engine.
"there are a few states in which there is not a constant effort in the population to increase beyond the means of subsistence. This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of society to distress, and to prevent any great permanent melioration of these conditions."
(1757-1827) a romantic poet who called the early factories "satanic mills" and protested against the hard life of the poor.
A simple, inexpensive, hand-powered spinning machine created by James Hargreaves in 1765. It helped contribute to or begin the industrialization of England greatly.
A government's way of supporting and aiding it's economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products.
Factory Act of 1833
English law that led to a sharp decline in the employment of children by limiting the hours that children over the age of nine could work and requiring younger children to attend factory-run elementary schools.
Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851
The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of iron and glass.
Issued in 1819, these decrees were designed to uphold Metternich's conservatism, requiring the German states to root out subversive ideas and squelch any liberal organizations.
British laws, revised in 1851, that prohibited the importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels, thus benefiting the aristocracy but making food prices high for working people.
people that wanted to accomplish something like a specific goal
metaphysical ideas based on on spectating
Mid 1870's with help of coworkers, made harmful bacteria lead to spread of disease
English physicist/chemist (1791-1867) who discovered electromagnetic induction (electric energy) and that invented the first electric motor and dynamo.
1828-1910 combined realism in description and character developed greatest book war and peace
People became aware of cleanliness which lead to findings of miasmatic theory, pasteurization, antiseptic principle, and germ theory.
The study of human society and human social behavior.
Invented the "mule" which was a combination of the water frame and Spinning Jenny produced thread that was stronger
Joseph M.W Turner
english romantic artist which showed power and terror of nature
began building cotton-spinning machines while Belgium was still under french rule.
1820-1895 studied conditions in northern England published the conditions of the working class in England
Thomas Newcomen invented first steam engine in 1705 used to operate a pump
Marxists called it ; 18th century there was conflict between classes b/c people though they had a perfect sense of class feeling
1799 parliament passed law which outlawed unions and strikes
Amalgamated Society of Engineers
1826-1920, a union that wanted good pay and finance for people in it.
A government-free enviroment between private parties, free from intervention and interruption concerning regulations, tax, tariffs, and enforced monopolies.
A disease caused by bacteria in food and water supplies.
Arrogance and stubborn about one's beliefs and opinions.
Known for proving that microorganisms/bacteria caused disease. Also created vaccine for rabies.
An Austrian physician who focused on pschoanalysis: unconscious causes of behavior/personality formation.
An influential French writer that wrote about naturalism and was criticized about it.
The idea that certain microbes/bacteria might cause specific infectious diseases.
The depiction of people, things, and other ideas as they really are w/o exaggeration or opinions.
Invented the water frame in England, which led to the Industrial Revolution.
A British citizen that invented a steam train, "Rocket", that ran on the 1st railway line at an amazing speed of 16mph.
Thought up the Iron Law of Wages, which stated that workers wages should be dependent on supply and demand.
A English, romantic poet (1770-1850) that was influenced by debtor's prison and nature.
A cottage spinning wheel that was powered by water, and that decreased production time; created by Richard Arkwright.
The belief of survival of the fittest in human political and economic struggles that plagued people.
Mines Act of 1842
Regulation in coal mines in Britain that forbade employment in underground areas for women, and girls and boys under the age of 10.
Members of the working class demanded reforms in 1900 in Britain's Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men.
Political/social philosophy demanding freedom of individuals, government, and civil rights.
Battle of Peterloo
1819-Protest because of anger about Corn Laws and loss of civilities; ran down by Birtish cavalry.