American mood in the '50's
Americans appeared complacent and content during the '50's. Despite this, many feared communism, juvenile delinquency and homosexuality. Many enjoyed the fruits of the decade's consumer culture and prospered under their popular president.
"Ike's" leadership style
Eisenhower's approach to the presidency reflected is wartime leadership style. He concentrated on "the big picture" while laboring to reconcile contending factions. He rarely intervened publicly in the legislative process, shunned using his office as a "bully pulpit" and assured his cabinet that he would "stay out of it's hair."
Submerged Lands Act
The government turned over the oil-rich tidelands that the Supreme Court had previously awarded to the Federal government to the states of California, Louisiana and Texas.
Eisenhower's philosophy of being liberal in all things human and being conservative with all things fiscal. Appealed to both Republicans and Democrats.
President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.
What did Ike agree with/ support?
Congress' decision to extend social security benefits to more than 10 million Americans, raise the minimum wage, add 4 million workers to those eligible for unemployment benefits, increased federally financed public housing for low-income families, approved the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the creation of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
List the effects of the Interstate Highway system
Accelerated suburban growth, heightened dependency on cars and trucks, hastened the decline of the nation's rail lines, contributed to the decay of its central cities and pollution of its air, and drastically increased gasoline consumption.
What was Ike's strategy for dealing with J. McCarthy?
Initially he tried to steal McCarthy's thunder by tightening security requirements for government employees. When that failed, he allowed wait for McCarthy to doom himself. He did so in 1954 when he accused the army of harboring communist spies. The army then charged McCarthy with using his influence to gain preferential treatment for a member of his staff who had been drafted.
How did the "Red Scare" linger even after McCarthy's censure & death?
Congress annually funded the House Un-American Activities Committee's search for suspected radicals and state and local governments continued to require teachers to take loyalty oaths. Some radical conservatives carried on McCarthy's vision of conquering communism.
Appointee of Eisenhower that incurred conservatives' wrath for defending the rights of persons accused of subversive beliefs.
Brown v. Board of Education- 1954
The Court held that separating schoolchildren "solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone" and thus violated the equal-protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
In 1956 more than a hundred members of Congress signed, denouncing Brown as "a clear abuse of judicial power."
How did Ike feel about civil rights & Brown ruling?
He felt that you could not change the minds of men with laws or rules and therefore he would do nothing to enforce the Brown ruling.
What did southern states do after the Brown decision?
They rejected the Court's ruling. White Citizens Councils sprang up and the Ku Klux Klan revived. Declaring Brown "null, void, and of no effect," southern legislatures claimed the right to "interpose" themselves against the federal government.
Governor of Arkansas that mobilized the state's national Guard to bar nine African-American students for entering Little Rock's Central High School under a federal court order. After another court order forced Faubus to withdraw the guardsmen a mob of whites blocked the black students' entry.
Little Rock 1957
Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus ordered the national guard to bar 9 black students' entry into the Little Rock Central High School. A court order then forced Faubus to withdraw the troops. After the withdrawal of troops, a white mob appeared and prevented the students' entry. Eisenhower dispatched troops to protect the entry of the students into the school and patrolled the Central High for the rest of the year. (First time troops had been dispatched to defend black civil rights since reconstruction.)
What role did TV play in the Little Rock drama and how was this the future?
The contrast between the images of howling white racists and those of the clean-cut and resolute black students projected so vividly on the TV screen immensely aided the civil-rights cause.