Pathophysiology Chapter 7 Adaptive Immunity

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What are the most important cells of the adaptive immune response?

lymphocytes

Where do lymphocytes originate

bone marrow as lymphocyte precursors or stem cells

Where do lymphocytes mature?

in the bone marrow or lymph system, where the precursors will differenitate into T or B cells

Lymphocytes are very specific for what?

certain antigens

The success of the immune system hinges on..

the cooperation and function of both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunities

Activated B lymphocytes are..

plasma cells. either directly or indirectly when stimulated B Lymph develop into plasma cells

What are antibodies

proteins release from the plasma cells or antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity

What do T lymphocytes do?

recognize specific antigens, can directly attack abnormal cells, called cell-mediated immunity

Lymphocytes are the most important cells of what

adaptive immune response

Where and how do the lymphocytes originate?

in the bone marrow as precursor or stem cells

What 2 precursor cellw will the functional lymphocytes differentiate into?

T cells in the thymus
B cells in the bone marrow

Are lymphocytes very specific for certain antigens?

yes

Where do they circulate to have the highest chance of comming in contact with an antigenic match?

lymphatic system

Success of the immune system hinges on what?

the cooperation and function of both cell-mediated and antibody (humoral) immunities

Activated B lymphocytes are what

plasma cells, when stimulated they either directly or indirectly become these

What are the proteins released from plasma cells called?

antibodies this is called antibody-mediated immunity

What do T lymphocytes do?

recognize specific antigens, can directly attack abnormal cells, and cell-mediated immunity T helper, T cytoxic, T memory, T regulator=T suppressor

Antigens trigger what response?

adaptive immune system

What is the result of the adaptive immune systems responses to antigens?

production of an antibody

What is an antibody?

a protein molecule that can bind strongly to an antigen, binding is so strong it is almost covalent

What is an antigen?

is a molecule recognized by products of the immune system T and B lymphocytes and antibodies

What does an antigen do?

identifies the cell as SELF or NON SELF, identifies the type of cell, can elicit and immune response

An antigen is more immunogenic if it is..

lare, organic, complex in structure, foreign "non-self" or at least recognized as non-self

What happens if an antigen is large and complex?

there can be multiple immunogenic portions of the antigen this is called antigenic determinants or epitopes

What is a hapten?

is a molecule that is not large enough to induce an immune response by itself

What does a hapten do?

it may trigger an immune response when bound to a larger molecule

Can medications act as haptens and why?

yes because if they bind to something like a RBC surface protein and it could then become immunogenic

What cells are involved in innate immune system?

neutrophils monocytes/macrophages

What cells are involved in adaptive immune system?

T cells cell-mediated B cells antibody-mediated and both B and T cells produce memory cells to speed responses

What is natural immunity?

immunity not gained through modern medicine

What is artificial immunity?

immunity gained through artificial means

What is active immunity

the body respons to a pathogen (antigen) to make antibodies LONG TERM IMMUNITY

What is passive immunity?

the body simply receives antibodies with no effort of its own. SHORT TERM IMMUNITY

Examples of natural active..

Hep A

Examples of natural passive

a baby receives antibodies from its mother through the placenta and breast milk

Examples of artificial active

a person receives an injection of an attenuated pathogen that stimulates the body to form an antibody

Example of artificial passive

injection of prepared antibody

T lymphocytes carry out what?

cell-mediated immunity

Cell-mediated immunity involved which cell types?

T helper=CD4 T cytoxic=CD8 T regulator=T suppressor

B lymphocytes carry out what?

antibody-mediated immunity

What is the old name of antibody-mediated immunity?

humoral

What do B lymphocytes do?

produce and secrete antibodies

What are Natrual Killer (NK) cells?

non-T or non-T lymphocytes, they squeeze out of boodstream and into tissues, cells that lack MHC 1 molecules, trigger an apoptotic signal in their victim

What is immune surveillance/?

looking for cells that "just don't look right" i.e. cancer cells

T helper CD4 cells do what?

are recruited by advertising of antigens displayed by MHC 11 markers on the surface of APC

What do CD4 cells do when found?

they release IL-2 and stimulate cell division by autocrine activation

After CD4 release IL-2 what happens?

divide to form T memory cells-speed future responses; T helper1 cells-cell mediated immunity; T helper2 cells- antibody-mediated immunity

T cytotoxic CD8 cells do what?

activated by T helper, when activated release compounds that kill cancerous or virally infected cells, apoptosis is preferred for virally infected cells and perforin used to trigger cytolysis

DNA fragmentation reduces what?

risk of virus re-infection

Cytotoxic T cells do what?

they destroy infected cells that display viral antigens on their membranes

Which cells is little known about and lack identified CD marker?

T regulator T suppressor cell

What to T regulator/suppressor cells do?

seem to supress immune responses and save normal cells from destruction.

What do over-active T reg cell do?

cancer can get the upper hand and decrease immune surveillance

What do under active T reg cells do?

autoimmune disease decrease protection of normal cells

How are virally infected cells killed?

antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells all participate in destroying virally infected cells

What are the 2 ways T cells die?

virus infected or cancerous cells may be killed if a T cell receptor matches antigen displayed by MHC 1 molecules on their cell surface. some viruses and cancer cells evade detection by hiding MHC 1 cell surface receptors these cells are killed by NK cells

What are immunoglobulins (antibodies)?

are distinguished by a number of characteristics, distinguished by structure, location, and function IgM IgG IgA IgE IgD

What are IgM's?

immunoglobulin, petamer, 10 heavy and 10 light chains, very effective activator of the complement system

What are IgG's?

monomer, actively transported accross the placenta, longest half-life of the immunoglobulines, LONG term immunity

What are IgA's?

located in the plasma and body secretions, sIgA contains a secretory component (protects from enzymatic destruction- lacrimal glands, salivary glands, and lymph in breasts, bronchi GI tract

What do IgA protect against?

pathogens that are inhaled, swallowed, or come in contact with external surfaces.

What are IgE's?

low plasma concentration, bound to eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells, triggers release of histamine from mast cells

How is mast cells activated?

T helper cells use IL-4 to signal B cells, B cells release IgE, IgE is a potent activator of mast cells

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