Olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity inferior to the perforated bony structure known as the:
These coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus
Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?
Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to bind to in the:
The number of olfactory receptors decline as we age
Which of the following is true of olfactory discrimination?
They project first to the mammillary bodies and then to the thalamus
All of the following are true of olfactory pathways, except:
a.) They are the only sensory pathways to reach the forebrain without first synapsing iin the thalamus
b.) Primary afferents synapse in the olfactory bulb
c.) They project first to the mammillary bodies and then to the thalamus
d.) Information flows to the olfactory complex, hypothalamus, and limbic system
e.) They exhibit a considerate amount of convergence
Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?
A normal, reflexed inhalation carries about _______ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs.
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the:
Modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid-rich product are called ________ glands.
What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
All of the answers are correct
Which of the following is true of the vascular tunic of the eye?
a.) Controls the shape of the lens
b.) Provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of the eye
c.) Regulates the amount of light entering the eye
d.) Secretes and reabsorbs the aqueous humor
e.) All of the answers are correct
The ______ ______ of the eye: contains bipolar cells, contains ganglion cells, contains photoreceptor cells, is the deepest layer of the eyeball
This helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina
The space between the cornea and the iris is the:
The ____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the:
The part of the eye that determines eye color is the:
The opening in the iris through which light passes is the:
In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the:
The ________ _______ contracts to adjust the shape of the lens for near vision
Excessive production may lead to glaucoma
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?
A ____ is often caused by bacteria, is a painful swelling in an eyelash, may involve a tarsal gland; may involve a sebaceous gland.
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the:
Which of the following descriptions applies to the term myopia?
Conjunctiva -> cornea -> aqueous humor -> lens -> vitreous body -> retina -> choroid
A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?
______ -> _____ -> ________ ______ -> ______ -> _______ ______ -> __________ -> _______
Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ___________, and sympathetic activation causes ___________.
If your vision is ______/______, this means that you can see objects at 20 feet that individuals with normal eyesight can see at 15 feet
3, 1, 5, 2, 4
Trace the circulation of aqueous humor from the site of production to the site of where it is reabsorbed:
1. Posterior chamber
2. Anterior chamber
3. Ciliary body
4. Canal of Schlemm
The light rays are divergent instead of parallel and require more refraction
Why must accommodation occur to view objects closer than 20 feet from the eye?
Contracts; loose; round
During accommodation, the ciliary muscle ________ and the suspensory ligaments become ______ which, in turn, cause the lens to become _______.
What structure regulates the amount of light that passes to the photoreceptors of the eye?
There are no photoreceptors in that area
The optic disc is a blind spot because why?
The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as a:
______ cells connect photoreceptors to ganglion cells
When light encounters a medium of different density, it is bent or ____________
____________, or pink eye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface
Where the eyelids join at the medial or lateral edge is called the ________
A person suffering from ____________ can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred (Nearsightedness)
A person suffering from ____________ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close (Farsightedness)
A type of farsightedness that results from a loss of lens elasticity with age is __________
Part A) Cornea and sclera
Part B) Optic disc
Part C) Fovea
Part D) Conjunctiva
*Diagram with 4 questions
Part A) Which two structures make up the outermost fibrous tunic of the eye?
Part B) Which of the following is NOT part of the vascular tunic of the eye?
Part C) The area of the retina that contains the highest concentration of cones is known as the ______.
Part D) What is the epithelium that covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye called?
____________ sensations inform us of the position of the head in space by monitoring gravity, linear acceleration, and rotation
The tympanic membrane
The external acoustic meatus ends at:
Tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - oval - window - round window
What is the correct anatomical sequence of the structure of the ear?
Moves up and down
What happens to the basilar membrane when the stapes moves back and forth?
Utricle and saccule
The ________ & _______ convey(s) information about head position with respect to gravity
A ______ ______ causes: a large movement within the tympanic membrane, a big pressure pulse entering the cochlear duct at that oval window, reflex contractions of the middle ear muscles, and an alerting reaction leading to sympathetic activation
Tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
Tympanic membrane to the oval window
The auditory ossicles connect the:
The vibrations received by the tympanic membraneare transferred to the oval window by the:
The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the:
The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors in the:
Saccule and utricle
Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the ________ and _________
There is a change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells
When an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells:
The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the:
The region of the ampulla that contains the receptors for rotational (dynamic) equilibrium are called:
Signals rotational movements
Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals:
The structure attached to the oval window that transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is the:
The distal end
Low frequency sounds stimulate hair cells on which part of the basilar membrane?
The energy from a pressure wave in the cochlear fluids is released by the bulging and stretching of the:
The function of the ____________ ________ is to equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
Utricle and saccule
Standing still in an elevator that suddenly lowers will stimulate receptors in the: __________ & __________
An infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of:
The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in:
Which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated
The frequency of a perceived sound depends on:
2, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3
The following is a list of the steps that occur in the production of an auditory sensation:
1. The pressure wave distorts the basilar membrane on its way to the round window
2. Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the malleus
3. Displacement of the stereocilia stimulates sensory neurons of the cochlear nerve
4. Movement of the malleus causes movement of the incus and stapes
5. Distortion of the basilar membrane forces the hair cells of the organ of Corti toward or away from the tectorial membrane
6. Movement of the oval window establishes pressure waves in the perilymph of the vestibular duct
What is the proper sequence of these events?
The force exerted by the otoliths on hair cells of the maculae
Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on:
Seals the oval window
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stapes?
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the:
The cell bodies of sensory neurons that innervate the hair cells of the cochlea form the ______ ganglion
Send information to the vestibular complex of the inner ear
The vestibular nuclei at the boundary of the pons and the medulla function in all of the following, except that they:
The secretion commonly called earwax is produced by __________ glands
____________ fills the membranous labyrinth
___________ is a fluid similar to cerebrospinal fluid that fills the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous layrinth
__________ deafness results from conditions in the outer or middle ear that block the transfer of vibrations from the environment to the tympanic membrane or to the oval window
__________ deafness occurs because of a problem un the cochlea or somewhere along the auditory pathway
Abnormal jumpy eye movements that may appear after brain stem or inner ear damage are called:
The formal term for the sense of balance and equilibrium is the __________ sense
When you spin quickly, you may feel dizzy. Which component of the inner ear generates the sensations that can lead to this feeling?
The cochlear receptors that provide our sense of hearing are _______ cells
Part A) External acoustic meatus
Part B) Cochlea
Part C) Vestibule and semicircular canals
*Diagram with 3 questions
Part A) What is the name for the ear canal?
Part B) Which of the following structures is NOT part of the middle ear?
Part C) Which two structures if the internal ear make up the vestibular complex (which provides the sense of equilibirum)?
V (Trigeminal Nerve)
A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve _______
Gustatory receptors are clustered in individual _______ _____
Stimulation of the nocieptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of: _______ ____
On the surface of the tongue
Gustatory receptors are located:
VII (Facial), IX (Glossopharyngeal), and X (Vagus)
Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves: ______, ______, & ______
What is NOT one of the six primary taste sensations?
Facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), and Vagus (X)
Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)?
An adult has approximately _______ taste buds
The membrane proteins that respond to chemical stimuli to produce sweet, bitter, and umami sensations are called:
Red, green, and blue
There are 3 different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated:
When all 3 cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive:
Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound _____________
All of the answers are correct
Which of the following statements is true about rhodopsin?
A) Consists of opsin + retinal
B) Is the visual pigment in rods
C) Called visual purple
D) Is bleached during photoreception
E) All of the answers are correct
Which of the following statements about the retina is true?
A) Ganglion cells send axons to the brain as cranial nerve II
B) It has photoreceptors that do not respond to red light
C) Axons carrying its output synapse in the thalamus
D) It has photoreceptors that do not respond to dim light
E) All of the answers are correct
The visible spectrum for humans extends between a wavelength of 400 nm and ____ nm
The hair cells of the cochlear duct are located in the organ of ________