the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables established in a line of poetry.
a unit of meter. can have two or three syllables. consists generally of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables.
a two-syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable. establishes a rising meter.
foot consists of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. establishes a falling meter.
foot consists of three syllables with the stress on the last syllable. establishes a rising meter.
foot containing three syllables with stress on the first syllable. it establishes a falling meter. this is a rare pattern in English.
foot consists of two stressed syllables. compound words are examples. serve to slow down the pace of a line and to give emphasis to words and phrases and are used for variation.
foot consists of two unstressed syllables. this type of foot is rare and is found interspersed with other feet. serve to speed the pace of a line.
a deliberate omission of the last foot of a metered pattern; common with falling rhythms in English
found in Gerard Manley Hopkin's poetry; marked by an unpredictable number of stressed syllables. Each foot begins with a strongly stressed syllable, which may be followed by another stressed syllable or a number of stressed syllables.
one foot line
two foot line
three foot line
four foot line
five foot line
six foot line
seven foot line
eight foot line
consists of verse with end rhyme and usually with a regular meter
consists of lines of iambic pentameter without end rhyme
consists of lines that do not have a regular meter and do not contain rhyme
the similarity of sound existing between two words. a true _____ should consist of identical sounding syllables that are stressed and the letters preceding the vowels sounds should be different.
rhyme based on an imperfect or incomplete correspondence of end syllable sounds.
position of rhyme
rhyme may be end rhyme or internal rhyme
consists of the similarity occurring at the end of two or more lines of verse
consists of the similarity occurring between two or more words in the same line of verse
the kinds of rhyme based on the number of syllables presenting a similarity of sound
occurs when one syllable of a word rhymes with another word
occurs when the last two syllables of a word rhyme with another word
occurs when the last three syllables of a word or line rhyme
two or more words that have the same vowel sound followed by the same consonants in their last stressed syllables
includes imperfect (half or slant) rhymes and alliterative rhymes; they share similar vowel and consonant rhymes
has identical initial consonant sounds but the succeeding sounds may vary
occurs whenever the entire final stressed syllables produce exactly the same sound; in many cases this kind of rhyming involves the repetition of the same words
the pattern or sequence in which the rhyme occurs. the first sound is represented or designated as A, the second is designated as B, and so on. when the first sound is repeated, it is designated as A also.
the repetition of the initial letter or sound in tow or more words in a line or verse
the use of a word to represent or initiate natural sounds
the similarity or repetition of a vowel sound in two or more words.
the repetition of consonant sounds within a line of verse. similar to alliteration except it doesn't limit the repeated sound to the initial letter of a word.
the repetition of one or more phrases or lines at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza. the refrain often takes the form of a chorus.
the reiterating of a word or phrase within a poem
figure of speech
an expression in which the words are used in a nonliteral sense to present a figure, picture or image.
a direct or explicit comparison between two usually unrelated things indicating a likeness or similarity between some attribute found in both things. uses like or as to introduce the comparison.
implied comparison between two usually unrelated things indicating a likeness or analogy between attributes found in both things. does not use like or as to indicate the comparison.
the giving human characteristics to inanimate objects, ideas, or animals.
the technique of mentioning a part of something to represent a whole
the substitution of a word naming an object for another word closely associated with it.
a word or image that signifies something other than what it literally represents.
a narrative or description having a second meaning beneath the surface one
is an exaggeration for the sake of emphasis and is not to be taken literally
consists of saying less than one means, or of saying what one means with less force than the occasion warrants
a balancing or contrasting of one term against another
the addressing of someone or something usually not present, as though present
a device by which the author implies different meaning from that intended by the speaker in a literary work. an incongruity or discrepancy between what a character says or thinks and what the reader knows to be true (or between what a character perceives and what the author intends the reader to perceive).
irony of situation
a situation in which there is an incongruity between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate or between what is anticipated and what actually comes to pass.
a figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said.
a statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements.
a compact paradox - a figure of speech that combines two contradictory words, placed side by side.
consists of two successive rhyming verses that contain a complete thought within the two lies. it usually consists of iambic pentameter lines. (sometimes called a closed couplet)
is a three-line stanza form with an anapestic meter. the rhyme scheme: a-b-a, b-c-b, c-d-c, etc.
a five-line nonsense poem with an anapestic meter. the rhyme scheme is usually a-a-b-b-a. the first, second, and fifth lines have three stresses; third and fourth have two stresses
consists of four lines with a rhyme scheme of a-b-c-b. the first and third lines are tetrameter and the second and fourth are trimeter.
a stanza consisting of seven lines in iambic pentameter rhyming a-b-a-b-b-c-c. it is called so b/c King James I used it
consists of eight iambic pentameter lines with a rhyme scheme of a-b-a-b-a-b-c-c, it is a form that was bored from the Italians.
a nine-line stanza consisting of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by an alexandrine, a line of iambic pentameter. the rhyme scheme is a-b-a-b-b-c-b-c-c. the form derives its name from Edmund Spenser, who initiated the form for his Faerie Queene.
a fourteern-line stanza form consisting of iambic pentameter lines.
divided usually between eight lines called the octave, using two rhymes arranged a-b-b-a-a-b-b-a, and six lines called the sestet, using any arrangement of either two or three rhymes: c-d-c-d-c-d and c-d-e-c-d-e are common patterns. the division between octave and sestet usually corresponds to a division of thought.
composed of three quatrains and a concluding couplet, rhyming a-b-a-b c-d-c-d e-f-e-f g-g. Again the units marked off by the rhymes and the development of thought often correspond.
consists of five tercets and a quatrain in which the first and third lines of the opening tercet recur alternately at the end of the other tercets and together as the last two lines of the quatrain.
usually a poem that mourns the death of an individual, the absence of something deeply loved, or the transience of mankind
most widely used type of poem, so diverse in its format that a rigid definition is impossible. Common factors include: limited length, intensely subjected, personal expression of personal emotion, expression of thoughts and feelings of one speaker, highly imaginative, regular rhyme scheme
an exalted, complex, rapturous lyric poem written about a dignified, lofty subject
a reference in literature or art to previous literature, history, mythology, current events, or the Bible
something located at a time when it could not have existed or occurred
a short often personal story used to emphasize a point, to develop a character or theme, or to inject humor
the word or phrase to which a pronoun refers
a terse statement that expresses a general truth or moral principle; sometimes considered a folk proverb
a character, situation, or symbol that is familiar to people from all cultures because it occurs frequently in literature, myth, religion, or folklore
a break or pause in a line of poetry, commonly marked by punctuation. can be used to isolate and emphasize important words or phrases, to achieve rhythmic effects, or to set up an enjambment. periods, question marks, and exclamation points indicate strong ______. colons, semicolons, and dashes indicate moderately strong ____, and commas indicate relatively brief ______.
a caesura within a brief line of poetry
a caesura at the end of a line of poetry.
a far-fetched comparison between two seemingly unlike things; an extended metaphor that gains appeal from its unusual or extraordinary comparison
associations a word calls to mind - what a word suggests beyond its basic definition
the quality of duration produced by nasals - such as n, m, ng - and fricatives - such a z, v, and a voiced s - as well a voiced th. tends to resound throughout the line to create harmony or dissonance.
connotes a tone of weariness or languor that is created by voiceless fricatives, alone or in combination: h, f, the voiceless s, sh, and the voiceless th. the length of exhaustive consonants, if grouped together, forces the reader to pause in order to take a breath.
the quality of smoothness or suavity that results from using liquid consonants and semivowels l, r, w, r, y
the qualities of sounds that car the nerves or grate against the ear, occur when certain hard consonants are employed repetitively. these consonants include stops - such as b, p, t, d, g, and k - as well as ch and j. these consonants sound hard and restrained. the consonants g and k are particularly harsh when they begin or end a word
kinds/levels of language employed in a work; one can distinguish between abstract and concrete language, soft and hard diction, and formal and informal diction
the omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve the meter
in poetry, the running over of a sentence from one verse or stanza into the next without stopping at the end of the first.
anything that affects or appeals to the reader's senses
a poem that tells a story
a short story illustrating a moral or religious lesson
a comical imitation of a serious piece with the intent of ridiculing the author or his work
a poem, play, or story that celebrates and idealized the simple life of shepherds and shepherdess. the term has also come to refer to an artistic work that portrays rural life in an idyllic or idealistic way
the quality of a literary whorl or passage which appeals to the reader's or viewer's emotions - especially pity, compassion, and sympathy. it's different fro, the pity one feels for a tragic hero in that the pathetic figure seems to suffer through no fault of his or own
poems (counterpoint) that correspond to other poems (point). sometimes the later poem imitates the earlier one by adapting its poetic conventions
humorous play on words that have several meanings or words that sound the same but have different meanings
the use of humor to ridicule and expose the shortcomings and failings of society, individuals, and institutions, often in the hope that change and reform are possible
highly alliterative and marked by a strong caesura or rhythmical break in the middle of the line
middle english period
(Geoffery Chaucer) perfects the use of iambic pentameter and rhyming couplets in the long narrative poem The Cantebury Tales
dominant forms are dramatic poetry (Shakespeare, Ben Johnson, Christopher Marlowe) and love lyrics (the shorter poems of Sydney, Campion, John Donne, and Herrick)
(Swift, Pope, and Johnson) specialize in satiric verse, often set in heroic couplets marked by witty plays on words and rhetorical schemes
(Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelly) is largely lyric verse. Robert Browning invented a form later called the dramatic monologue.
a turn toward free verse, eschewing strict metrical, rhythmic and rhyming patterns.
a lyric poem that is a love song expressing complaint that dawn means the speaker must part from his lover
carpe diem poetry
a popular motif in seventeenth century love poetry that is traditionally a male trope (a figure of speech involving a turn or change of meaning), in which a male speaker engages in seduction of a known or imagined female.
a rhetorical scheme through which balance is achieved by reversing the syntax of the first part in the second part
a rhetorical scheme in which words and phrases are arranged to suggest an order of rising importance or magnitude
retains some of the formal trappings of the choral ode; alternating strophes and antistrophes in which the stanza form is of the same pattern, an epodes, in which the stanza form changes
in which the singers moved together in one direction on stage
in which the chorus the singers moved together in the opposite direction
in which the singers stood still
employs only one stanza type
provides a poet with more license; the stanzas may include lines of varying line lengths and the stanzas themselves may be differing length with diverse metrical and rhyming patterns
includes imperfect (half or slant) rhymes and alliterative rhymes; they share similar vowel and consonant sounds
a lyric poem derived from the French that consists of six stanzas of six lines each followed by a three-line conclusion or envoy; it requires a strict pattern of repetition of six key words that end the lines of the first stanza
a figure of speech in which a part of an object or process is used to represent the whole
a special kind of lyric poem in which the speaker reveals his or her character through an extended speech or a one-way dialogue; the reader is placed in a position of overhearing the speaker's monologue or dialogue with another whose words are not revealed. it captures a critical moment in a character's life and can reveal change or growth, revelation or epiphany, or renewed commitment to an ingrained perspective.
the classical form of the elegy: alternating hexamter and pentameter lines.
the speaker casts the deceased loved one in the role of a shepherd who has been insufficiently
a long narrative poem "celebrating episodes of a people's heroic tradition." it can be wholly mythic in origin or a mixture of myth and history. characterstics include the hero, the setting, heroic elements, use of the supernatural, and elevation of language
traditional (folk) epic
may have been originally an oral or anonymous poem; it typically focuses on the adventures of a hero who is important to or representative of a nation and contains specific formula: the argument or a statement of theme at the beginning, epic catalogues of warriors, and long speeches
literary (art) epic
a conscious imitation of a folk epic
a short lyric poem notable for its concision of statement, pithiness, and wit; they can also be found as short statements in prose
the author's or the speaker's attitude toward the subject or theme of a work; often used interchangeable with tone or atmosphere although tone is more nearly the author's attitude toward the audience and atmosphere is created through physical or emotional setting rather than the author's attitude toward the subject
a japanese poem form that is composed of 3 lines of 5,7,5 (consonants)
a poem with a shape that suggests its subject.
descriptive language that appeals to the sense of touch
descriptive language that appeals to the sense of smell
descriptive language that appeals to the sense of sight
descriptive language that appeals to the sense of hearing
descriptive language that appeals to the sense of taste
recreates a feeling of physical action or natural bodily function (like a pulse, a heartbeat, or breathing).
involves the use of one sense to evoke another (Ex: loud color; warm gesture)
the representation of objects (especially a god) as having human form or traits
a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work
A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
occurs when the outcome of a work is unexpected, or events turn out to be the opposite from what one had expected
understatement for rhetorical effect (especially when expressing an affirmative by negating its contrary)
having or characterized by or consisting of one syllable
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences