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gene

a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary unit

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

nucleotide

in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

purine

a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; adenine or guanine

pyrimidine

a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; in DNA, either thymine or cytosine

DNA replication

the process of making a copy of DNA

DNA helicase

an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication

DNA polymerase

an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule

RNA

ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

gene expression

the manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in the form of specific traits

transcription

the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template

translation

the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains

codon

in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal

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