Chapter 1 Microbiology

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Beck

Disease causing microorganisms

pathogens

the microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes

decomposers

the microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called

procaryotes

when humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, the process is called

genetic engineering

A mosquito is considered a microorganism

false

all microorganisms are best defined as organisms that

are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

an example of biotechnology is

Eschericia coli producing insulin

humans manipulating microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting

biotechnology

unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from other microorganisms

lack cell structure

the Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

what provides a means to gather objective data

experimentation

spontaneous generation is the belief that:

living things arise from nonliving matter

Koch's Postulates are criteria to establish that:

A specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease

Name the taxons in order (most inclusive to most exclusive)

Domain, kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, species, sub-species

how do you write a scientific name

Genus is capitalized
species in in lowercase
italicized or underlined

Taxonomy involves

nomenclature, classification, taxa, identification

taxa

taxonomic categories

is a common name involved in taxonomy?

NO

taxonomy

the branch of science dedicated to classifying organisms

What is the smallest (most exclusive) taxon?

species

evolution

hereditary information changes gradually through time, which leads to various structural and functional changes over generations

the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called

phylogeny

phylogeny

the scheme that represents the natural relatedness between groups of living beings

a scientist discovers a new microbial species.
it is single-celled eucaryote, without a cell wall.
In what kingdom would it be classified?

Protista

What kingdom
are prokaryotes in?

Monera

What kingdom
are mostly unicellular?

Protista

What kingdom
are unicellular or multicellular, and have cell walls?

Fungi

only multicellular organism are in what 2 kingdoms?

Animalia and Plantae

helminths are:

parasitic worms

Parasites are always

harmful to their host

The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery

Joseph Lister

sterile refers to

absence of any life forms

scientist who showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis

Robert Koch

when assigning a scientific name what two things should be italicized or underlined?

genus and species

The scientists who proposed that organisms be assigned to 1 of 3 domains are:

Carl Woese and George Fox

In Whittaker's system, the protozoa and algae are classified in which kingdom?

Protista

Which kingdom does not contain eucaryotes?

Monera

The area of biology that states that living things undergo gradual structural and functional changes over long periods of time

Evolution

Living things that an ordinarily termed as too small to see with the naked eye

Microorganisms

What group of microorganisms are composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering?

viruses

A scientist:
constructs a hypothesis
tests its validity by outlining predicted events of
the hypothesis
experiments to test for those events
is using what approach?

Scientific method

Which branch of microbiology deals with host microbe interactions?

immunology

Which branch of microbiology deals with the use of microbes or their products in a commercial or industrial setting?

biotechnology

Which branch of microbiology deals with the deliberate recombination of genomes of microbes, plants and animals?

genetic engineering

the study of the system of the body's defenses that protect against infection

immunology

true nucleus

eukaryotic

"prenucleus"

prokaryotic

T or F
Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom.

True

T or F
Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's 5 kingdoms.

True

T or F
Members of the kingdom Fungi are photosynthetic.

False, members are NOT photosynthetic

T or F
A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria.

False, helminths are parasitic worms, not a bacteria

T or F
All microorganisms are parasitic.

False, parasites only make up a very small portion of microorganisms.

T or F
During a scientific experiment, the control group is used to directly test or measure the consequences of a variable in a study.

False, the experimental group is used.

T or F
once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised.

False

T or F
The names of the 3 proposed domains are: Bacteria, Protista and Eukarya

False, Bacteria and Eukarya are 2 of the 3 domains, and Archaea would be the 3rd. Protista is a kingdom.

T or F
One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments.

True, they live in extreme salt and extreme temperature environments.

When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, this process is known as:

Genetic engineering

Woese-Fox's 3 Domains

Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya

Whittaker's 5 kingdoms:

Plantae, Fungi (Myceteae), Animalia, Protista, Monera

Woese-Fox's Domain Bacteria includes:

cyanobacteria, clamidias spirochettes, gram-positive bacteria, endospore producers, gram-negative bacteria

Woese-Fox's Domain Archeae include:

methane producers, extreme salt prokaryotes, extreme temperature prokaryotes

Woese-Fox's Domain Eukarya includes:

Eukaryotes: Plants, animals, fungi and protists

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