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Covalent Bond

a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Single Covalent Bond

a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons

Double Covalent Bond

a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons

Triple Covalent Bond

a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons

Coordinate Covalent Bond

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons

Polar Covalent Bonds

unequal sharing of electrons

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

bonds in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of the same element in a compound.

Resonance Structures

Lewis structures that have the same arrangement of atoms in a molecule but differ in the distribution of electrons among the atoms.

Van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

Dispersion Forces

The weakest molecular interactions caused by the motions of electrons.

Dipole Interactions

intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

Hydrogen Bonding

attraction between positive charge on a hydrogen in a dipole and the negative end of another molecule. Think water!

VSEPR theory

a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other

Cohesion

(physics) the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid

Adhesion

an attraction between molecules of different substances

Surface tension

a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces

Capillary Action

a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries

Surfactant

a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved

Hydrate

compound that has water chemically attached to its ions and written into its chemical formula

Hygroscopic

a term describing salts and other compounds that remove moisture from the air

Efflorescence

Gain salt, loses water

Dessicant

substance used as a drying agent

Solvation

a chemical process in which solvent molecules and molecules or ions of the solute combine to form a compound

Solubility

the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure

Solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

Solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

Electrolyte

a solution that conducts electricity

Polar

having an uneven distribution of charge

Nonpolar

Equal sharing of electrons

Octahedral

6 places where electrons are found; 6 places with bonding electrons, 0 places with nonbonding electrons, 90 degrees

Trigonal Planar

molecular geometry: 6 electron domains with 3 lone pairs, 120 degrees

Trigonal Pyramidal

molecular geometry: 4 electron domains with 1 lone pair, 107

Trigonal Bipyramidal

5 charge centers, no unshared pairs on central atom

Electronegativity

The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound

Dipole

a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions

Nonpolar

Difference less than .5

Polar

Difference in between .5 and 2.1

Ionic

Greater than 2.1

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