Chapter 2 Microbiology

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Beck

Anything that occupies space and mass is called:

Matter

The electrones of an atom are:

moving in pathways called orbitals and
always equal to the number of protons

14C6

contains:
6 protons
6 electrons (because always equal)
is an isotope of carbon (yes because isotopes have different # of neutrons, so 2 top #s will be different)
mass # 14

does not pertain:
14 neutrons - it only has 8 neutrons (to find # of neutrons you must subtract the # of protons from the mass #)

the subatomic particles that surround the nucleus are:

electrons

Isotopes are atoms, of the same element, that differ in

neutron #

What is the maximum # of electrons in the second energy shell of an atom?

8
n=number of shells
formula: n squared times 2
so, second shell would be n=2, 2 squared = 4, then X 2=8

What is the maximum # of electrons in the first energy shell of an atom?

2
n=number of shells
formula: n squared times 2
so, first shell would be n=1, 1 squared = 1, then X 2=2

the valance number is the

number of outermost electrons

two or more atoms bonded together are called a:

molecule

polar molecules are composed of covalently bonded:

atoms of different electronegativity

which type of molecules have an unequal charge distibution?

Polar molecules

A reaction where an electron is lost

oxidation

oxidation

any reaction causing a loss

a reaction that receives electrons

reduction

a reaction that occurs when ionic bond is broken and atoms separate into ions

ionization

positively charged ions

cations

negatively charged ions

anions

conduct an electrical current

electrolytes

an atom has gained an electron. It has been:

reduced

A +B then AB

synthesis reaction

AB then A + B

decompostion

AB + XY then AX+BY

replacement

the important solvent associated with living things

water

characteristics of an acid

pH less than 7
lactic acid
vinegar
hydrogen ion donor

Base

pH above 7

Neutral

pH = 7
water

bond that results from sharing of electrons

covalent

a bond that results from the transferring of electrons

ionic bond

a bond that results from polar covalent bonds

hydrogen bond

hydrophilic

love water

hydrophobic

hate water

ionic compounds are:

hydrophilic
polar and ionic

the building blocks of enzymes

amino acids

a simple sugar such as glucose that is the basic building block for more complex carbohydrates

monosaccharides

a sugar containing 2 monosaccharides

disaccharide

sucrose (fructose + glucose)

disaccharide

fructose

monosaccharide

a carbohydrate that can be hydrolyzed into a number of monosaccharides

polysaccharide

cellulose

polysaccharide

starch

polysaccharide

glygogen

polysaccharide

ribose

monosaccharide

deoxyribose

monosaccharide

cholesterol

lipid

phospholipid

lipid

triglyceride

lipid

A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have _____hydrogen atoms and ______ oxygen atoms

10,5
(CH2O)n = where n=5
C5H(2*5)O5 = C5H10O5

One nucleotide contains the following:

one phosphate
one pentose
one nitrogen base

contains glycosidic bonds

polysaccharides

glycosidic bonds

link subunits of disaccharides and polysaccharides together

what part of the phospholipid forms hydrophobic bonds?

fatty acids

An amino acid contains:

an amino group
a carboxyl group
a variable R group
a carbon

does NOT contain:
a nitrogen base

ATP is best described as

the energy molecule of cells

True about enzymes

found in all cells
are catalysts
participate in cell's chemical reactions
can be denatured by heat and other agents

They DO NOT:
have high-energy bonds between phosphates

all of the genetic material of the cell

genome

the complete set of chromosomes and genes in an organism

genome

DNA + RNA

genome

Processes that define life include:

growth
reproduction and heredity
metabolism
movement and/or irritability

does NOT include:
invading host cells

The orderly division of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division i s called

mitosis

during the formation of a carbohydrate bond, the step in which a carbon molecule gives up its OH group, and the other uses the H from its OH group, thereby producing a water molecule.

dehydration synthesis

Protons + Neutrons=

atomic weight

atoms that gain or lose electrons become charged particles called:

ions

protons and neutrons make up the atom's central core referred to as its

nucleus

a solution is composed of one or more substances called _______ that are uniformly dispersed in a dissolving medium called a ______.

solute, solvent

Organic chemicals always have a basic framework of the element _____ bonded to other atoms.

Carbon

_____ bonds are formed by dehydration synthesis between adjacent amino acids.

Peptide

A fat is called _____if all carbons of the fatty acid chain are single bonded to 2 other carbons and hydrogens.

saturated

molecules entering or starting a reaction

reactant

substances left by a reaction

product

a weak type of bond that forms between a hydrogen covalently bonded to one molecule and an oxygen or nitrogen, on the same molecule, or a different molecule

hydrogen bond

substances that increase the rate of an action

catalyst

triglycerides

important storage lipids

if there is atleast one double bonded C (C=C) in the hydrocarbon chain of the fat

unsaturated

Purines and pyrimidines are components in the building block units of:

nucleic acids

the nitrogenous base of a nucleic acid comes in 2 forms:

purines
pyrimidines

one ring

pyrimidines

3 types of pyrimidines

thymine
cytosine
uracil

two ring

purines

2 types of purines

adenine
guanine

During protein synthesis, __RNA is made to be a copy of a gene from the DNA.

messenger

copy of DNA

messenger RNA

carrier

tranfer RNA

ribosomes

ribosomal RNA

In _______reproduction, offspring arise from the division of a single parent cell into 2 identical progeny cells.

Asexual
Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction.

T or F
All proteins are enzymes.

False because all enzymes are proteins, not the other way around.

T or F
Elements have predictsble chemical properties

True

T or F
Replication is the cellular mechanism for making a copy of its DNA

True

T or F
Nucleic acids have primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels of organization.

False, proteins have these characteristics, not nucleic acids.

phospholipid bilayer

cell membrane

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