Nutrition Chapter 5

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95% of our lipids, most are found in this way

Triglycerides

What is the chemical composition of fats?
a. Hexose polymers
b. Glycogen granules
c. Fatty acids and glycerol
d. Combinations of long chain fatty acids

c

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
a. diglyceride.
b. triglyceride.
c. phospholipid.
d. monoglyceride.

b

How many double bonds are present in stearic acid?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3

a

What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?
a. Stearic acid
b. Linoleic acid
c. Palmitic acid
d. Linolenic acid

a

Which of the following represents a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids?
a. Fish
b. Eggs
c. Dairy
d. Soybeans

c

How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 4
d. 6

a

What is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Palmitic acid

b

Which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Linolenic acid
d. Arachidonic acid

b

Approximately how many carbons are contained in a medium-chain fatty acid?
a. 2-4
b. 6-10
c. 12-22
d. 24-26

b

Which of the following is a common source of medium-chain fatty acids?
a. Fish oils
b. Beef products
c. Vegetable oils
d. Dairy products

d

Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
a. Monounsaturated fatty acid
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
c. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
d. Short-chain saturated fatty acid

b

Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid

d

Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
a. Monounsaturated fatty acid
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
c. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
d. Short-chain saturated fatty acid

b

An omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the
a. third carbon from the acid end.
b. first 3 carbons from the acid end.
c. third carbon from the methyl end.
d. first 3 carbons from the methyl end.

c

What is a triacylglyceride?
a. A triglyceride
b. A phospholipid
c. A partially hydrolyzed lipid
d. A lipid found only in cold-water fish

a

A polysaturated fat has a

low melting point

A factor that determines the hardness of fat at a given temperature depends on the

degree of saturation

Which of the following structural features of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
a. Chain length
b. Number of double bonds
c. Position of first saturated bond
d. Size of adjacent fatty acids on the triglyceride molecule

b

Which of the following is a characteristic of lipids?
a. A quick way to spoil fats is by exposure to carbon dioxide
b. Typically, the shorter the carbon chain, the firmer the fat at 75°
c. Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
d. Palm oil and coconut oil are very liquid due to their longer carbon chains

c

This lipid will spoil the quickest in an loose container

Soybean oil

Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following except
a. they are stored in adipose tissue.
b. they lower HDL and raise LDL cholesterol in the body.
c. some of their fatty acids change shape from cis to trans.
d. products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.

d

Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
a. Butter
b. Walnut oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

d

Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
a. Butter
b. Corn oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

b

Which of the following characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?
a. Neither is liquid at room temperature
b. Neither contains saturated fatty acids
c. Both contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids
d. Both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids

d

Which of the following provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?
a. Palm oil
b. Walnut oil
c. Soybean oil
d. Flaxseed oil

d

The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which of the following lipids?
a. Corn oil
b. Olive oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

a

Which of the following is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?
a. Corn oil
b. Palm oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Chicken fat

a

Which of the following lipids contain(s) saturated fat?
a. Butter only
b. Soybean oil only
c. Cottonseed oil only
d. Butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil

d

All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
a. palm oil.
b. fish oils.
c. soybean oil.
d. safflower oil.

a

In the process of fat hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are added to which part of the molecule?
a. Oxygen
b. Carbon
c. Glycerol
d. Other hydrogens

b

Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?
a. Resistant to digestion
b. Soluble in both water and fat
c. Highly susceptible to oxidation
d. Found naturally only in animal foods

b

The composition of lecithin could include all of the following except
a. choline.
b. phosphate.
c. fatty acids.
d magnesium.

d

What type of compound is lecithin?
a. Bile salt
b. Glycolipid
c. Lipoprotein
d. Phospholipid

d

What is the usual fate of dietary lecithin?
a. Unabsorbed and passes out in the feces
b. Absorbed intact and incorporated into tissues
c. Absorbed intact and broken down by the liver
d. Hydrolyzed by the intestinal enzyme lecithinase

d

Which of the following is a feature of choline?
a. It is a part of lecithin
b. It is a type of cis-fatty acid
c. It is a type of trans-fatty acid
d. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids

a

A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they
a. are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine.
b. contribute small amounts of magnesium.
c. have an energy content of 4 kcalories per gram.
d. contribute large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.

a

Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?
a. Widespread in foods
b. Found in cell membranes
c. Manufactured by the body
d. Dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption

d

How much energy is contributed by one gram of lecithin in a dietary supplement?
a. 0 kcal
b. 4 kcal
c. 7 kcal
d. 9 kcal

d

What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?
a. 0 kcal
b. 2 kcal
c. 45 kcal
d. 200 kcal

c

Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
a. Both are sterols
b. Both are phospholipids
c. Both are essential nutrients
d. Both are synthesized in the body

d

Each of the following may act as an emulsifier in the intestinal tract except
a. lecithin.
b. bile acids.
c. pancreatic lipase.
d. bile phospholipids.

c

What is the major sterol in the diet?
a. Palm oil
b. Lecithin
c. Cholesterol
d. Arachidonic acid

c

About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day?
a. None
b. A few mg
c. Less than 300 mg
d. At least 800 mg

c

Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?
a. Corn
b. Olives
c. Roasted turkey
d. Roasted peanuts

c

What is the major source of "good" cholesterol?
a. Fatty fish
b. Fatty meat
c. Endogenous synthesis
d. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids

c

A common feature of the plant sterols is they
a. raise LDL and lower HDL.
b. inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol.
c. inhibit absorption of "bad" cholesterol.
d. enhance absorption of omega-3 fatty acids.

b

Which of the following is a property of dietary lipids?
a. Omega-3 fatty acids are always unsaturated
b. Lipids that are solid at room temperature are classified as oils
c. The fatty acids in triglycerides may be of chain length 2 to 25 carbons
d. The most common fatty acid chain length in triglycerides is 10 carbons

a

What percentage of cholesterol is extracellular?

10%

Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?
a. It is absorbed directly into the blood
b. It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
c. It is not formed in the body when provided by the diet
d. It is found in abundance in tropical fats such as palm oil

b

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
a. Its Daily Value is 300 mg
b. Its structure is similar to that of lecithin
c. Most of the body's cholesterol is found circulating in the bloodstream
d. The amount consumed in the diet usually exceeds the amount synthesized in the body

a

All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol except
a. bile.
b. glucose.
c. vitamin D.
d. sex hormones.

b

Which of the following is not a destination for cholesterol?
a. Synthesized into bile
b. Excreted in the feces
c. Accumulates on walls of veins
d. Accumulates on walls of arteries

c

What term may be used to describe a substance that is hydrophobic?
a. Lipophilic
b. Lipophobic
c. Glycerophilic
d. Glycerophobic

a

Bile is not

manufactured by the gallbladder

Which of the following is characteristic of the lipase enzymes?
a. Gastric lipase plays a significant role in fat digestion in adults
b. Intestinal mucosal lipase is responsible for most dietary fat digestion
c. Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
d. Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes most dietary triglycerides completely to glycerol and free fatty acids

c

Which of the following is not a feature of the bile acids?
a. Stored in the gallbladder
b. Synthesized from cholesterol
c. Manufactured by the gallbladder
d. Released into the small intestine whenever fat is present

c

In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as
a. enzymes.
b. hormones.
c. detergents.
d. chylomicrons.

c

What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
a. Mouth
b. Stomach
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine

c

Chylomicrons are synthesized within the
a. liver.
b. intestinal cells.
c. lymphatic system.
d. storage compartment of plant seeds.

b

How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
a. It denatures cholesterol in the stomach
b. It hydrolyzes cholesterol in the intestinal tract
c. It traps cholesterol in the intestinal tract and thus inhibits its absorption
d. It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover

d

Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as
a. micelles.
b. chylomicrons.
c. monolipomicrons.
d. endogenous bilayer aggregates.

a

What substance cannot be absorbed directly into the blood

long-chain fatty acids

After a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as
a. micelles.
b. chylomicrons.
c. low-density lipoproteins.
d. very-low-density lipoproteins.

b

In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains
a. less lipid.
b. less protein.
c. more cholesterol.
d. more carbohydrate.

a

Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
a. Chylomicron
b. Low-density lipoprotein
c. High-density lipoprotein
d. Very-low-density lipoprotein

b

What tissue contains special receptors for removing low-density lipoproteins from the circulation?
a. Liver
b. Adipose
c. Arterial walls
d. Skeletal muscle

a

A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of
a. free fatty acids.
b. high-density lipoproteins.
c. low-density lipoproteins.
d. very low-density lipoproteins.

c

What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?
a. Chylomicron
b. Low-density lipoprotein
c. High-density lipoprotein
d. Very-low density lipoprotein

c

A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
a. triglycerides.
b. free fatty acids.
c. high-density lipoproteins.
d. very-low-density lipoproteins.

c

Which of the following lipids is an essential nutrient?
a. Lecithin
b. Cholesterol
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid

d

Which of the following is used by the body to synthesize arachidonic acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Linoleic acid
c. Palmitic acid
d. Linolenic acid

b

Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?
a. Acetic acid
b. Palmitic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Docosahexaenoic acid

d

Which foods provide essential fatty acids

Fish, beef, and plants

Building blocks in the body's synthesis and elongation of fatty acids

2-carbon fragments

Which of the following is a feature of adipose cell lipoprotein lipase?
a. The enzyme's activity is reduced by high-fat diets
b. The enzyme's activity is increased by signals from epinephrine and glucagon
c. The enzyme works to promote uptake of circulating triglycerides into storage triglycerides
d. The enzyme is involved in release of free fatty acids from stored triglyceride into the bloodstream

c

What is the function of lipoprotein lipase?
a. Synthesizes lipoproteins in liver cells
b. Synthesizes triglycerides in adipose cells
c. Assembles lipid particles into chylomicrons
d. Hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells

d

Which of the following is a feature of fat metabolism?
a. Cholesterol is stored primarily on the surface of veins
b. High-density lipoproteins represent the major transport vehicle for delivering fat to the adipose cells
c. Fat storage is highly efficient due to the rapid uptake of the intact triglyceride molecule by adipose cells
d. Triglycerides in the blood must first be broken down to monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol prior to uptake by the adipose cells

d

What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
a. Hydrolyzes hormones involved in fat breakdown
b. Synthesizes new adipose cells from simple fatty acids
c. Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
d. Synthesizes long-chain fatty acids to provide precursors for other cells

c

Approximately what percentage of the body's energy needs at rest is supplied by fat?
a. 5
b. 25
c. 40
d. 60

d

What fatty acid raises blood cholesterol level by the least amount?

Stearic

Is a source of omega- 3 and can lower blood cholesterol levels

Canola Oil

________ contains more saturated fat and cholesterol than ___________ does

butter, margarine

The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed
a. eicosanoids.
b. linolenic acid.
c. docosahexaenoic acid.
d. eicosapentaenoic acid.

b

As a percentage of daily energy intake, what is the recommended range for the essential fatty acids?
a. 2.5-5.5
b. 5.6-11.2
c. 12-19
d. 20-35

b

According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?
a. 50 mg
b. 150 mg
c. 300 mg
d. 1,000 mg

c

Approximately how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800-kcalorie meal that provides 50% of the energy from carbohydrate, 20% from protein, and the remainder from fat?
a. 15
b. 22
c. 27
d. 35

c

A meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10 g of saturated fats, 14 g of monounsaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. What is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?
a. 22
b. 33
c. 44
d. 55

b

Which of the following is the most desirable quality that fat adds to foods?
a. Color
b. Sweetness
c. Palatability
d. Hydrogenation

c

Which of the following is a characteristic of the lipid content of livestock?
a. The meat from "free-range" animals is similar in composition to soy protein
b. "Free-range" animals contain more omega-3 fats in the meat than grain-fed animals
c. Grain-fed animals contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids in the meat compared with grass-fed animals
d. Grain-fed animals contain lower concentrations of fat in the meat compared with grass-fed animals

b

You and your friend John are planning a college graduation party and you want to include healthy snack alternatives. You select fruit, veggies, low-fat dips, low-fat cheeses, whole-wheat crackers, and low-fat potato chips. John says he has heard about the fat replacer olestra in the potato chips and asks you how it works. You reply that olestra
a. slows the pancreas's release of lipase enzyme.
b. consists of tight protein-binding molecules that replace the fat molecules usually present in potato chips.
c. contains a fat-like substance that the body's enzymes can't break down and therefore cannot be absorbed.
d. is first subjected to radiation exposure to desaturate the bonds within the fat molecules, which reduces the kcalorie content.

c

Which of the following is not a feature of the artificial fat replacer olestra?
a. It can be used in the frying of foods
b. It leads to constipation in some individuals
c. Its chemical structure is similar to a triglyceride
d. It lowers absorption of vitamins A and K from foods

b

Which of the following is a drawback of olestra consumption?
a. It yields 9 kcalories per gram
b. It imparts off-flavors to foods
c. It raises blood glucose levels
d. It inhibits absorption of vitamin E

d

In most nuts, what is the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fats, in order of highest to lowest amounts?
a. Monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated
b. Polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, saturated
c. Polyunsaturated, saturated, monounsaturated
d. Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

a

Of the total fat content of the most commonly eaten nuts in the United States, what is the approximate percentage of monounsaturated fat?
a. 5
b. 30
c. 45
d. 60

d

Which of the following is a good plant source of omega-3 lipids?
a. Flax seeds
b. Safflower oil
c. Sunflower seeds
d. Corn oil margarine

a

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