309 test one

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organizational hypothesis

Differential hormone exposure early in life organizes neural circuitry underlying sexually dimorphic behaviors

actiavation hypothesis

differential hormone exposure in adulthood activates this circuitry and results in expression of sexually dimorphic behaviors

lordosis

estrogen, immobile position with arched back and deflected tail (allows males to mount/mate)

revised conclusion of o/a hypothesis

testosterone acts during a critical period of development to "program" adult sex behavior

sexual dimophism related to sexual partners

more dimorphic = polygamous, less dimorphic monogomous

intrasexual selection

males compete with each other for females

intersexual selection

females choose males with most attractive traits

sexual selection

a form of natural selection, individuals differ in their ability to compete for and/or attract potential mates

XXY Klinefelter syndrome

contains SRY, masculinazation occurs, long limbs,

synapse

between axon and dendrite, an action potential releases neaurotransmitters

causing a charge in potential

neurotransmitter binds itself to the receptor sites on the dendrites of the next neuron

reuptake

the neurotransmitter returns to the synpatic knob

peripheral nervous system

spinal and cranium nerves

somatic system

connects CNS to voluntary muscles

autonomic system

connects CNS to involuntary muscles

sympathetic system

readies the body for energy use

parasympathetic system

restores the body

Orexin/Hypocretin

Synthesized in hypothalamus, Increases wakefulness,
Food intake, and sexual arousal

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Synthesized in the hypothalamus, kidneys, stored in posterior pituitary, In blood, Maintains homeostasis, Involved in social behaviors

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH

releasing hormone (GnRH), Controls ovulation

hypothalamus

controls hormone secretions

anterior pituatary

growth, secreted by thyroid

posterior pituiatary

water and salt balance

adrenal glands

emotional arousal, inflammatory reactions, salt and carb metabolism

pineal gland

reproductive maturity, body rythms

axis

multiple endocrine glands working together

leptin

energy, appetitie, metabolism

pancreas

regulates sugar levels

Thyroid

releases Calcitonin, growth and development

Parathyroid

releases Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Oxytocin

Stimulates uterine contraction during labor
Stimulates Release of milk in response to suckling Milk production requires Prolactin

Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTH)

adrenal cortex/anterior pituatary gland, increases prodcution of cortisol in response to stress

morphological sex

dependent on external genitals

turner syndrome

XO chromosomes, Unambiguously sexed as girls at birth, ovaries do not produce steroid hormones

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

adrenal glands produce high concentrations of androgens (male sex hormones), masculinization in females

morph

Multiple "types" of the same sex

Kallmann Syndrome

Decreased release of GnRH, Males with it have no sense of smell (ansomic)

birdsong

recurrent =learning, efferent=production, organized by estrogens, activated by androgens,

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