_______ are the starting substances in a chemical reaction.
Two or more substances combine to form one new substance in ____________ reactions.
The process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances is called a ________.
__________ are calculations used to find the masses of materials involved in reactions.
In the chemical reaction known as _________, one element displaces another in a compound.
The quantitative study of chemical reactions such as mass -mass problems is called.
The breaking up of substances into simpler substances when energy is supplied is called _________.
________ is the term referring to the substances formed by a chemical reaction.
In _________ reactions, the positive and negative portions of two compounds are interchanged.
The ______ of a product is expressed as actual amount of product over theoretical amount of product x 100%
The reaction of an organic compound as it burns in air is called ___________.
Any reaction who' products have more energy than the reactants; the container would feel could because the products take thermal energy out of the surroundings and absorb the energy into their chemical bonds
Any reaction that gives off thermal energy; the products have less energy than the reactants
The distance along a straight line connecting the nuclei of two bended atoms in a molecule is called the ______.
An uncharged particle that is formed when two or more atoms are covalently bonded is a(n) _______.
The electrostatic force that holds two ions of opposite charge together is called a(n) ______.
The line joining the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule is called the _____.
The relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to it when bonded to another atom is called its ______.
The _______ is the angular distance between two bond axes that extend from the same atom.
A shared pair of electrons between two atoms forms a(n) _______.
A(n) ______ in a metal is free to move from one atom to another.
The delocalized electrons holding metallic atoms together produce the _______.
A charged particle formed by two or more covalently bonded atoms is called a(n) ______.
A substance with the same molecular formula as another, but with a different structure, is called a(n) __________.
A pair of outer electrons that bond two atoms is called a(n) ________.
Three pairs of electrons bonding two atoms form a(n) _________.
An organic compound with at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms is called a(n) ________.
Two orbitals binding a pair of atoms form a(n) _______.
The merging of an s and p orbital forms a(n) ________.
Two electrons in a nonbonding orbital are called a(n) _______.
An organic compound in which all the carbon atoms are joined by single bonds is called a(n) ________.
Any force that holds two molecules together is called a(n) ______.
A bond in which one of the atoms attracts the shared pair more strongly than the other is said to be ______.
molecule with any asymmetrical charge distribution is a(n) ________.
Any attraction between atoms in a molecule is a(n) ________.
Unlike an ideal gas, the molecules of ______ have both volume and an attraction for one another.
________ states that the pressure exerted by a gas varies inversely with its volume, if the amount and temperature of the gas remain constant.
Standard atmospheric pressure
101.325 kilopascals is _______.
________ are considered to have no volume or diameter because they are so small and so far apart.
A(n) ______ is composed of molecules with mass, but with no volume and no mutual attraction between the gas molecules.
The equation V = kT (volume of a quantity of gas varies directly with the Kelvin temperature) represents _________.
_________, or 0◦C, is one of two standards used to compare volumes of gas.
Adding partial pressures of all the gases in a container to find the total pressure in the container demonstrates ________.
________ indicates that a gas has been measured at standard conditions.
The following statement is called _______; At equal temperatures and equal pressures, equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules.
The ______ of a gas is the volume occupied by one mole of the gas under standard conditions.
Ideal gas equation
PV=nRT, which represents the relationship among pressure, temperature, volume, and moles of a gas, is called the _______.
a unit for pressure (P)
a unit for volume (V)
a unit for Temperature (T)
represents moles in the ideal gas equation
the Boltzmann constant , equal to 8.31J/mol K
Any oxide that will produce a base when dissolved in water is a(n) _________.
Acetic acid is called a(N) __________.
The negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base form a crystalline compound called a(n) _____.
________ are substances that conduct an electric current when they are dissolved in water.
To be _______ means to be without water.
A substance that can react as either an acid or a base is said to be ______.
A(n) _______ contains only two elements.
An example of a(n) ______ is hydrochloric acid; it is completely ionized in a water solution.
A(n) ______ is an acid containing three elements.
A bare proton combined with a water molecule is called a(n) ______.
A base that ionizes only slightly in a solution is called a________.
The remaining particle after a proton has been released by an acid is the _____ of the acid.
A(n) _______ is any oxide that produces an acid when dissolved in water.
are those ions present in a solution but not involved in a reaction.
_________is an acid containing more than one ionizable hydrogen atom.
A weak organic base or acid that has a different color than its conjugate acid or base is called a(n) ________.
A simple acidity scale used to measure hydronium ion concentration is the ______.
When a salt reacts with water to produce an acidic or basic solution, the process is called ________.
______ is the quantitative process wherein a standard solution is used to determine the concentration of another solution.
Most chemists use a(n) _____ to determine a solution's acidity.
A(n) _________, attached to the main chain of carbon atoms, is also called a branch.
Aromatic hydroxyl compounds exemplify the class called _______.
Hydrocarbons that do not contain benzene rings are called ______.
A(n) ______ substituted for a hydrogen atom on the parent chain is also called a radical.
In ________, which are neither acidic nor basic, the hydrogen atom is displaced only by active metals.
_______ are characterized by a carbonyl group and an amine group.
In a(n) _____ of compounds, the members differ from each other by a specific structural unit.
A(n) _____ is a chain compound in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
______ are hydrocarbons containing multiple bonds.
Compounds with triple-bonded carbon atoms are called ________.
Alkanes are _____ because each carbon-carbon bond is a single bond.
_______ contain one or more benzene rings and have rather distinctive odors.
_____ are organic bases in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to alkyl groups and hydrogen atoms.
______ are left when one hydrogen atoms, together with its associated electron, is removed from a hydrocarbon molecule.
Olefins, or _______, are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain a double bond between carbon atoms.