APWH Chapters 21-22

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AP World History Stearns Chapters 21 and 22 Vocab

Asian sea trading network

prior to intervention of Europeans, had 3 zones: Arab based on glass, carpet, and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; China based on paper, porcelain, and silk

Francis Xavier

Spanish Jesuit who worked in India in 1540s among outcaste and lower caste groups; made little headway among elites

Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall

Jesuit scholars in Ming court; skilled scientists who won few converts to Christianity

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

general under Nobunga; succeeded as leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constructed series of alliances that made him military master of Japan in 1590

Tokugawa Ieyasu

vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan

School of National Learning

new ideology that laid emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and revival of indigenous culture at expense of Chinese imports like Confucianism; typical of Japan in 18th century

Deshima

island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of islands in 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships allowed to enter

Robert di Nobili

Italian Jesuit who worked in India during early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites first; strategy later adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed

Hongwu

1st Ming emperor in 1368; peasant lineage; originally named Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored scholar-gentry

The Water Margin, Monkey, and the Golden Lotus

Ming novels recognized as classics in their time; set standard for Chinese prose literature today

Luzon

northern island of Phillipines; conquered by Spain during 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort

Mindanao

southern island of Phillipines; Muslim kingdom able to successfully resist Spanish conquest

Ottomans

Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkhans; unified under Mehmed I: captured Constantinople in 1453; destroyed remainder of Byzantine Empire

Mehmed II

Ottoman sultan known as the "Conqueror"; conquered Constantinople in 1453; destroyed remainder of Byzantine Empire

Janissaries

Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered Balkhan areas, legally slaves; turned military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century

vizier

Ottoman equivalent of Abbasid wazir; head of Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century, often more powerful than the sultan

Safavid dynasty

originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in what is now Iran; lasted until 1722

Abbas I, the Great

extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology

Isma'il

Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah (emperor)

Mughal dynasty

established by Babur in India in 1526; name taken from supposed Mongol descent of Babur, even though little evidence of Mongol influence; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb during early 8th century

Babur

founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530

Akbar

son/successor of Humayn; oversaw building of military and administration systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued cooperation with Hindu princes; tried to create new religion to bind Indian Muslims and Hindus

Din-i-Ilahi

religion initiated by Akbar; blended elements of many faiths; key to efforts to reconcile Indian Hindus and Muslims, but failed

Sati

Indian ritual of sacrificing surviving widows with the bodies of their dead husbands

Sikhs

sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim sentiments

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