Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Blood Components and Blood Tests

plasma

clear, straw-colored liquid

formed elements

dark-red buff-colored portions; RBCs, WBCs, platelets

erythrocytes

RBCs

leukocytes

WBCs

thrombocytes

platelets

serum

plasma minus clotting proteins, watery fluid

anucleate

without a nucleus

hemoglobin

large molecules used to transport oxygen/carbon dioxide in the blood

heme

red pigment that gives blood its color; contained in hemoglobin

polycythemia

abnormally high # of RBCs

anemia

abnormally low # of RBCs

leukocytes

larger, attack pathogens

granular

in cytoplasm that can be seen after staining (neutrophils, eosinophils)

megakaryocytes

large multi-nuclear cells that form platelets in red bone marrow

thrombocytopenia

a deficiency in the number of circulating platelets

erythrocytes

most numerous; small, pinkish cells

antigen

substance that is able to produce an immune response and will react with a specific antibody

antibodies

plasma proteins that combine with a specific antigen to inhabit or destroy it

agglutinate

clump

Rh+

when you have Rh antigens as a surface membrane molecule

Rh-

when you have no Rh antigens as a surface membrane molecule

hemolytic disease of the newborn

subsequent pregnancies with Rh+ fetuses can result in small Rh antibodies crossing the placenta and causing hemolysis in the fetuses' blood

antisera

artificial serum or serum from an animal/human containing antibodies against A,B,Rh antigens

serum

blood plasma without clotting proteins

complete blood count

vital diagnostic tool; screens for abnormalities in the number or structure of formed elements

differential WBC count

performed to determine the percentage of the five types of WBCs in a blood sample

hematocrit

determines the volume of RBCs described as the percentage of RBCs in a whole blood sample

38-46%

normal hematocrit range for females

40-54%

normal hematocrit rangw for males

polycythemia

abnormally high hematocrit (65%^)

anemia

when RBCs are below the normal level

cogulation

process of blood clotting that prevents excessive blood loss

fibrin

long, insoluble thread-like protein strand that forms a mesh to trap platelets

2-6 minutes

normal clotting time

RBCs

no nucleus

Neutrophils

multilobed nucleus with 2-5 or more lobes connected by threads

Eosinophils

bilobed nucleus (occasionally 3 lobes)

Basophils

nucleus is large, varied in shape; generally obscured by large granules

Lymphocytes

Large, round, or slightly indented nucleus that stains very dark purple

Monocytes

Large kidney bean or horseshoe shaped lacy nucleus; sometimes oval and indented

Platelets

No nucleus

RBCs

the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying cell

leukocytes

help the body fight infections and foreign substances; another name for wbc

Platelets

form a clot to help the body stop bleeding

erythrocytes

another name for rbcs

thrombocytes

another name for platelets

megakaryocytes

large cells that develop into platelets

anemia

a deficiency in number of rbis or decreased hemoglobin content of blood

polycythemia

an abnormal increase in rbcs

leukocytosis

an abnormal increase in wbcs

leukopenia

a deficiency in wbcs

thrombocytopenia

a deficiency in platelets

neutrophil

60-70% of all wbcs

eosinophil

2-4% of all wbcs

basophil

.5-1% of all wbcs

lymphocyte

20-25% of all wbcs

monocyte

3-8% of all wbcs

PMN

abbreviation for polymorphonuclear leukocytes

PMN & segs

nicknames for neutrophils

granulocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

agranulocytes

lymphocytes, monocytes

most numerous leukocyte

neutrophil

least numerous leukocyte

basophil

universal donor

O because it doesn't contain any antigens so the antibodies cannot attack the foreign antigens

universal recipient

AB because is has neither A or B antibodies so they do not attack any antigen

How much blood do we have?

5.5 L (1.5 gallons)

What are the functions of blood?

-carries oxygen, nutrients and hormones to body tissues
-transports carbon dioxide, heat and metabolic wastes away from body tissues
-regulates pH, body temperature, and cell water content
-provides protection from blood loss through clotting and against disease through phagocytic wbc and antibodies

What is the percentage of plasma in blood?

55%; water (91.5%), solutes (8.5%)

What is the percentage of rbc in blood?

45%

Granular

appears "grainy"; BEN

Agranular

lymphocytes & monocytes

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set