a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
A subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
general adaption syndrome
selyes concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three states - alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
Literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 557)
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction.
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
complementary and alternative medicine
unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 570)
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
a complex behavior that is patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
form of sugar that circulates in blood and passes the major source of energy for body tissues; low level= hunger
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Basal Metabolic Rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
after orgasm, cannot achieve another organism
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas: for attaining a high standard.
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
application of psychological concepts and motives to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
response of the whole organism including (1) physiological arousal (2)expressive behaviors (3) conscious experience
our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousign stimuli
an emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience
emotional release; maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy relives aggressiveness
our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience