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Monoculture-

dependence on a single agricultural commodity

Neolithic Revolution-

Dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication

Nomadic Herding-.

the wandering but movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage; the most extensive type of land use system

Nomadism-.

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding (and moving of) domesticated animals from pasture to pasture

Nucleated Settlement Pattern-

a type of settlement pattern where houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets, or in slightly larger clusters we call villages; the most prevalent rural residential pattern in agricultural areas

Open-lot System-

system of agricultural land distribution in which all villagers worked on one large plot of community farmland to produce a crop to eat

Organic Agriculture-

Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.

Pampas-

Large, treeless plains in South America.

Pastoralism-

agriculture based on the seasonal movement of animals from winter to summer pastures and back again

Pastoral Nomadism-

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals

Patriarchal System-

social system in which the father is the head of the family and men have authority over women and children, and land

Pesticide-

Chemicals used on plants that usually do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals

Plant Domestication-

The process where plants are artificially selected and become accustomed to human provision and control

Plantation Agriculture-

production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.

Plantation Farming-

a type of farming in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

Post-industrial Societies-

a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization

Primary-

activities that harevest or extract something from the earth, where humans are in the closest contact with the resources and potentialities of the environment

Primary Economic Activity-

concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture

Primogeniture-

system which the eldest son in a family; or, in exceptional cases, daughter; inherits of all a dying parent's land

Quaternary Sector-

service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital; examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services

Quaternary Economic Activity-

Economic activity involving the collection, processing, and distribution of information.

Quinary Economic Activity-

service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skills. Ex: scientific research and high-level management; economic activity involving the highest levels of decision making in a society or economy.

Ranching-

the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and byproducts such as leather and wool Rectangular Survey System-

Rectangular Survey System-

(public land survey) system used by the US Land Office to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains; system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels

Root Crops-

crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants

Second Agricultural Revolution-

dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution; witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce

Secondary Economic Activity-

economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector

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