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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. viruses that spread via the urban cycle transmission pattern
  2. viruses employing the sylvan cycle
  3. Pathogenesis of Arboviruses
  4. Viruses primarily seen in people who have traveled outside of the US
  5. Viruses with animal vectors
  1. a -Western equine encephalitis
    -Eastern equine encephalitis
    -lacrosse encephalitis
    -West Nile
  2. b -Yellow fever
    -dengue fever
    -St. Louis encephalitis
  3. c Yellow fever and dengue fever
    -it is important to take a good travel history as part of your exam
    -also consider recommending vaccines for people traveling to specific areas around the globe
  4. d Rabies
  5. e -Introduced into the bloodstream by infected insects
    -viral replication in reticuloendothelial system in vascular epithelium
    -secondary viremia can seed target organs

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. -Killed vaccine for humans
    -live attenuated vaccine for animals
    -vaccine recommended for high-risk people (veterinarians, postexposure)
    -rabies immunoglobulin use for postexposure prophylaxis (must must must be started before patient is symptomatic)
  2. -Encephalitis
    -hemorrhagic fevers
    -arthritis or arthralgias
  3. Humans have no natural resistance because they don't usually see these viruses
    -they are not the normal host
  4. 1. Dengue has 4 serotypes
    2. When a person is infected with dengue virus, they are only infected with one of the 4 serotypes and the antibodies that are made are specific for only that one serotype.
    3. patient gets better and later is infected again with a different serotype of dengue fever.
    4. ANTIBODIES from the initial infection WILL BIND to the 2nd serotype but CANNOT NEUTRALIZE IT.
    5. Virus can still infect the cells and because macrophages recognize the FC portion of the bound antibodies they get infected too.
    6. Hemorrhagic fever occurs when the macrophages are killed by the virus and release all of their cytokines especially TNF alpha resulting in DIC and hypovolemic shock which can lead to death
  5. -Patient develops confusion, lethargy, difficulty maintaining balance, and speech difficulties
    -fever is often seen
    -some viruses have just a fever malaise as the predominant presentation and can be self-limiting

5 True/False questions

  1. Rabies virus transmission1. Patient gets bitten by and in fact dead skunk, Fox, bat, raccoon, dog, cat
    2. virus replicates in muscle tissue at the site of the bite and spread to local nerve cells
    3. travels via retrograde transport to CNS and replicates in the gray matter virus
    4. virus will also spread to salivary glands via nerves

          

  2. Endemic area for La Crosse encephalitis-Patient develops confusion, lethargy, difficulty maintaining balance, and speech difficulties
    -fever is often seen
    -some viruses have just a fever malaise as the predominant presentation and can be self-limiting

          

  3. Negri bodies-rabdovirus
    -Causes encephalitis
    - primary vectors are skunks, raccoons, foxes, bats, and dogs

          

  4. Urban cycle transmission patternMosquitoes to humans and back to mosquitoes
    -humans are considered endemic hosts

          

  5. Hemorrhagic feversHigh fever and bleeding are the primary symptoms
    -mortality rates can be as high as 80%
    -bleeding is due to multiple mechanisms depending on the virus

          

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