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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. 2 main animal borne viruses in the US
  2. diagnosis of insect vector diseases
  3. viruses that spread via the urban cycle transmission pattern
  4. Primary clinical manifestation of all of the major arboviruses in the US
  5. Rabies
  1. a 1. Cultures are available for most of the Arboviruses
    -not routine
    -may involve inoculation of newborn mice
    2. diagnosis is usually made by serology using acute and convalescent sera
    -obtaining a sample can be troublesome
    -blood only contains virus during viremia
    -stool is negative
    -viruses rarely found in the throat or CNS
    3. PCR looks promising
  2. b Encephalitis
  3. c Rabies
    sin nombre
  4. d -rabdovirus
    -Causes encephalitis
    - primary vectors are skunks, raccoons, foxes, bats, and dogs
  5. e -Yellow fever
    -dengue fever
    -St. Louis encephalitis

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Liver disrupts production of clotting factors leading to bleeding
    -black vomit can also be seen
  2. High fever and bleeding are the primary symptoms
    -mortality rates can be as high as 80%
    -bleeding is due to multiple mechanisms depending on the virus
  3. Mosquitoes to humans and back to mosquitoes
    -humans are considered endemic hosts
  4. -Western equine encephalitis
    -Eastern equine encephalitis
    -lacrosse encephalitis
    -West Nile
  5. Primarily along the Mississippi River extending as far eastward as black earth

5 True/False Questions

  1. sylvan cycle transmission patternMosquitoes to humans and back to mosquitoes
    -humans are considered endemic hosts


  2. Why animal vector viruses are dangerous to humansWestern equine encephalitis
    Eastern equine encephalitis
    St. Louis encephalitis
    California Bunyaviruses (including La Crosse encephalitis)
    Colorado tick fever
    West Nile virus
    -sometimes the Venezuelan equine virus is also seen in the US


  3. arbovirus-Arthropod borne
    -can be transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods including tics, sand flies, and mosquitoes


  4. Sylvan cycleDoesn't occur in cities because the viruses are maintained by transmission between animal and insect; humans are just incidental hosts
    -examples = yellow fever, WEE, VEE, lacrosse, West Nile


  5. 3 mechanisms of virus maintenance in natureVirus is shed into the feces of the tick and onto the skin of the human; itching introduces the contaminated feces into the host by breaking the skin barrier


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